# Reading. Shading. An abundance of photons. Introduction. Required: Angel , 6.5, Optional: Angel 6.4 OpenGL red book, chapter 5.

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1 Reading Required: Angel , 6.5, Optional: Shading Angel 6.4 OpenGL red book, chapter Introduction An abundance of photons So far, we ve talked exclusively about geometry. Properly determining the right color is really hard. What is the shape of an object? How do I place it in a virtual 3D space? How do I know which pixels it covers? How do I know which of the pixels I should actually draw? Look around the room. Each light source has different characteristics. Trillions of photons are pouring out every second. These photons can: Once we ve answered all those, we have to ask one more important question: To what value do I set each pixel? Answering this question is the job of the shading model. Other names: Lighting model Light reflection model Local illumination model Reflectance model BRDF interact with the atmosphere, or with things in the atmosphere strike a surface and be absorbed be reflected (scattered) cause fluorescence or phosphorescence. interact in a wavelength-dependent manner generally bounce around and around 3 4

2 Our problem Setup We re going to build up to an approximation of reality called the Phong illumination model. It has the following characteristics: not physically based gives a first-order approximation to physical light reflection very fast widely used Given: In addition, we will assume local illumination, i.e., light goes: light source -> surface -> viewer. No interreflections, no shadows. a point P on a surface visible through pixel p The normal N at P The lighting direction, L, and intensity, L,at P The viewing direction, V, at P The shading coefficients at P Compute the color, I, of pixel p. Assume that the direction vectors are normalized: N = L = V = Iteration zero Iteration one The simplest thing you can do is Assign each polygon a single color: I=k e Let s make the color at least dependent on the overall quantity of light available in the scene: I = ke + kala where I is the resulting intensity k e is the emissivity or intrinsic shade associated with the object k a is the ambient reflection coefficient. really the reflectance of ambient light ambient light is assumed to be equal in all directions L a is the ambient light intensity. This has some special-purpose uses, but not really good for drawing a scene. [Note: k e is omitted in Angel.] Physically, what is ambient light? 7 8

3 Wavelength dependence Diffuse reflection Really, k e, k a, and I a are functions over all wavelengths λ. Ideally, we would do the calculation on these functions. For the ambient shading equation, we would start with: I ( λ) =k ( λ) L ( λ) a a Let s examine the ambient shading model: objects have different colors we can control the overall light intensity what happens when we turn off the lights? what happens as the light intensity increases? what happens if we change the color of the lights? then we would find good RGB values to represent the spectrum I(λ). Traditionally, though, k a and I a are represented as RGB triples, and the computation is performed on each color channel separately: I =k L I =k L I =k L R a,r a,r G a,g a,g B a,b a,b So far, objects are uniformly lit. not the way things really appear in reality, light sources are localized in position or direction Diffuse, or Lambertian reflection will allow reflected intensity to vary with the direction of the light Diffuse reflectors Diffuse reflectors Diffuse reflection occurs from dull, matte surfaces, like latex paint, or chalk. These diffuse or Lambertian reflectors reradiate light equally in all directions. or picture a surface with little pigment particles embedded beneath the surface (neglect reflection at the surface for the moment): Picture a rough surface with lots of tiny microfacets. The microfacets and pigments distribute light rays in all directions. Embedded pigments are responsible for the coloration of diffusely reflected light in plastics and paints. Note: the figures above are intuitive, but not strictly (physically) correct

4 Diffuse reflectors, cont. Iteration two The reflected intensity from a diffuse surface does not depend on the direction of the viewer. The incoming light, though, does depend on the direction of the light source: The incoming energy is proportional to the diffuse reflection equations: I=k +k L +k L e a a d, giving =k +k I +k L( ) e a a d where: k d is the diffuse reflection coefficient L is the intensity of the light source N is the normal to the surface (unit vector) L is the direction to the light source (unit vector) (x) + means max {0,x} [Note: Angel uses L d instead of L.] Specular reflection Specular reflection derivation Specular reflection accounts for the highlight that you see on some objects. It is particularly important for smooth, shiny surfaces, such as: metal polished stone plastics apples skin For a perfect mirror reflector, light is reflected about N, so L if V= R I = 0 otherwise Properties: Specular reflection depends on the viewing direction V. For non-metals, the color is determined solely by the color of the light. For metals, the color may be altered (e.g., brass) For a near-perfect reflector, you might expect the highlight to fall off quickly with increasing angle φ. Also known as: rough specular reflection directional diffuse reflection glossy reflection 15 16

5 Derivation, cont. Iteration three cos ns φ One way to get this effect is to take (R V), raised to a power n s. As n s gets larger, ns = 128 ns = 1 φ the dropoff becomes {more,less} gradual gives a {larger,smaller} highlight simulates a {more,less} mirror-like surface L N R 60 V The next update to the Phong shading model is then: where: s I=k +k I +k L( NL ) +k L( VR ) n e a a d + s + k s is the specular reflection coefficient n s is the specular exponent or shininess R is the reflection of the light about the normal (unit vector) V is viewing direction (unit vector) [Note: Angel uses α instead of n s, and maintains a separate L d and L s, instead of a single L. This choice reflects the flexibility available in OpenGL.] Intensity drop-off with distance OpenGL supports different kinds of lights: point, directional, and spot. For point light sources, the laws of physics state that the intensity of a point light source must drop off inversely with the square of the distance. We can incorporate this effect by multiplying I l by 1/d 2. Sometimes, this distance-squared dropoff is considered too harsh. A common alternative is: Iteration four Since light is additive, we can handle multiple lights by taking the sum over every light. Our equation is now: I=k +k L + f atten( d ) L k ( NL ) +k ( VR ) ns e a a j j d j + s j + j This is the Phong illumination model. Which quantities are spatial vectors? f atten 1 (d)= a+bd+cd 2 Which are RGB triples? with user-supplied constants for a, b, and c. Which are scalars? 19 20

6 Choosing the parameters Experiment with different parameter settings. To get you started, here are a few suggestions: Materials in OpenGL The OpenGL code to specify the surface shading properties is fairly straightforward. For example: Try n s in the range [0,100] Try k a + k d + k s < 1 Use a small k a (~0.1) Metal Plastic Planet n s large medium 0 k d Small, color of metal Medium, color of plastic varying k s Large, color of metal Medium, white 0 GLfloat ke[] = { 0.1, 0.15, 0.05, 1.0 }; GLfloat ka[] = { 0.1, 0.15, 0.1, 1.0 }; GLfloat kd[] = { 0.3, 0.3, 0.2, 1.0 }; GLfloat ks[] = { 0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0 }; GLfloat ns[] = { 50.0 }; glmaterialfv(gl_front, GL_EMISSION, ke); glmaterialfv(gl_front, GL_AMBIENT, ka); glmaterialfv(gl_front, GL_DIFFUSE, kd); glmaterialfv(gl_front, GL_SPECULAR, ks); glmaterialfv(gl_front, GL_SHININESS, ns); Notes: The GL_FRONT parameter tells OpenGL that we are specifiying the materials for the front of the surface. Only the alpha value of the diffuse color is used for blending. It s usually set to Shading in OpenGL Shading in OpenGL The OpenGL lighting model allows you to associate different lighting colors according to material properites they will influence. Thus, our original shading equation becomes: I=k +k L + f atten( d ) k L +k L ( NL ) +k L ( VR ) ns e a a j a a j d d j j + s s j j + j where you can have a global ambient light with intensity L a in addition to have an ambient light intensity L a j associated with each individual light. Repeating from the previous slide I=k +k L + f atten( d ) k L +k L ( NL ) +k L ( VR ) ns e a a j a a j d d j j + s s j j + j In OpenGL this equation is specified something like: GLfloat La[] = { 0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0 }; GLfloat La0[] = { 0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 1.0 }; GLfloat Ld0[] = { 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 }; GLfloat Ls0[] = { 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 }; GLfloat pos0[] = { 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.0 }; GLfloat a[] = { 1.0 }; GLfloat b[] = { 0.5 }; GLfloat c[] = { 0.25 }; gllightmodelfv(gl_light_model_ambient, La); gllightfv(gl_light0, GL_AMBIENT, La0); gllightfv(gl_light0, GL_DIFFUSE, Ld0); gllightfv(gl_light0, GL_SPECULAR, Ls0); gllightfv(gl_light0, GL_POSITION, pos0); gllightfv(gl_light0, GL_CONSTANT_ATTENUATION, a); gllightfv(gl_light0, GL_LINEAR_ATTENUATION, b); gllightfv(gl_light0, GL_QUADRATIC_ATTENUATION, c); You can have as many as GL_MAX_LIGHTS lights in a scene. This number is system-dependent

7 BRDF More sophisticated BRDF s The Phong illumination model is really a function that maps light from incoming (light) directions ω in to outgoing (viewing) directions ω out : f ( ω, ω ) r in out Cook and Torrance, 1982 This function is called the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF). Here s a plot with ω in held constant: ω in f ( ω, ω ) r in out Westin, Arvo, Torrance 1992 BRDF s can be quite sophisticated Gouraud vs. Phong interpolation Faceted shading Now we know how to compute the color at a point on a surface using the Phong lighting model. Assume each face has a constant normal: Does graphics hardware do this calculation at every point? Typically not (although this is changing) Smooth surfaces are often approximated by polygonal facets, because: Graphics hardware generally wants polygons (esp. triangles). Sometimes it easier to write ray-surface intersection algorithms for polygonal models. How do we compute the shading for such a surface? For a distant viewer and a distant light source, how will the color of each triangle vary? Result: faceted, not smooth, appearance

8 Faceted shading (cont d) Gouraud interpolation To get a smoother result that is easily performed in hardware, we can do Gouraud interpolation. Here s how it works: 1. Compute normals at the vertices. 2. Shade only the vertices. 3. Interpolate the resulting vertex colors Facted shading vs. Gouraud interpolation Gouraud interpolation artifacts Gouraud interpolation has significant limitations. 1. If the polygonal approximation is too coarse, we can miss specular highlights. 2. We will encounter Mach banding (derivative discontinuity enhanced by human eye). Alas, this is usually what graphics hardware supports. Maybe someday soon all graphics hardware will do 31 32

9 Phong interpolation Gouraud vs. Phong interpolation To get an even smoother result with fewer artifacts, we can perform Phong interpolation. Here s how it works: 1. Compute normals at the vertices. 2. Interpolate normals and normalize. 3. Shade using the interpolated normals Summary The most important thing to take away from this lecture is the equation for the Phong model described in the Iteration Four slide. What is the physical meaning of each variable? How are the terms computed? What effect does each term contribute to the image? What does varying the parameters do? You should also understand the differences between faceted, Gouraud, and Phong interpolated shading. 35

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