# VTU QUESTION PAPER SOLUTION UNIT -1 INTRODUCTION

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1 VTU QUESTION PAPER SOLUTION UNIT -1 INTRODUCTION 1. Briefly explain any two applications of computer graphics. (June 2012) 4M Ans: Applications of computer graphics are: Display Of Information Design Simulation & Animation User Interfaces 2. Explain the concept of pinhole camera of an imaging system. Also derive the expression for angle of view. (June 2012) 6M Ans: Use trigonometry to find projection of point at (x,y,z) xp= -x/z/d yp= -y/z/d zp= d These are equations of simple perspective 3. Discuss the graphics pipeline architecture, with the help of a functional schematic diagram. (June 2012) 10M Ans: Graphics Pipeline: Process objects one at a time in the order they are generated by the application All steps can be implemented in hardware on the graphics card Vertex Processor

2 Much of the work in the pipeline is in converting object representations from one coordinate system to another Object coordinates Camera (eye) coordinates Screen coordinates Every change of coordinates is equivalent to a matrix transformation Vertex processor also computes vertex colors Primitive Assembly Vertices must be collected into geometric objects before clipping and rasterization can take place Clipping Line segments Polygons Curves and surfaces Just as a real camera cannot see the whole world, the virtual camera can only see part of the world or object space Objects that are not within this volume are said to be clipped out of the scene Rasterization: If an object is not clipped out, the appropriate pixels in the frame buffer must be assigned colors Rasterizer produces a set of fragments for each object Fragments are potential pixels Have a location in frame buffer Color and depth attributes Vertex attributes are interpolated over objects by the rasterizer Fragment Processor: Fragments are processed to determine the color of the corresponding pixel in the frame buffer Colors can be determined by texture mapping or interpolation of vertex colors Fragments may be blocked by other fragments closer to the camera

3 4. With a neat diagram, explain the components of a graphics system. (Dec 2011) 6M Ans: A Graphics system has 5 main elements: Input Devices Processor Memory Frame Buffer Output Devices Pixels and the Frame Buffer A picture is produced as an array (raster) of picture elements (pixels). These pixels are collectively stored in the Frame Buffer. Properties of frame buffer: Resolution number of pixels in the frame buffer Depth or Precision number of bits used for each pixel E.g.: 1 bit deep frame buffer allows 2 colors 8 bit deep frame buffer allows 256 colors. A Frame buffer is implemented either with special types of memory chips or it can be a part of system memory. In simple systems the CPU does both normal and graphical processing.

4 Graphics processing - Take specifications of graphical primitives from application program and assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer It is also known as Rasterization or scan conversion. 5. With a neat diagram, explain the human visual system. (Dec 2011) 6M Ans: Rods are used for : monochromatic, night vision Cones Color sensitive Three types of cones Only three values (the tristimulus values) are sent to the brain Need only match these three values Need only three primary colors 6. Describe the working of an output device with an example. (July2011) 5M Ans: The most predominant type of display has been the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT). Various parts of a CRT: Electron Gun emits electron beam which strikes the phosphor coating to emit light. Deflection Plates controls the direction of beam. The output of the computer is converted by digital-to-analog converters o voltages across x & y deflection plates.

5 Refresh Rate In order to view a flicker free image, the image on the screen has to be retraced by the beam at a high rate (modern systems operate at 85Hz) 2 types of refresh: Non-interlaced display: Pixels are displayed row by row at the refresh rate. Interlaced display: Odd rows and even rows are refreshed alternately.

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