# University of Victoria CSC 305 Shading. Brian Wyvill 2016

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1 University of Victoria CSC 305 Shading Brian Wyvill 2016

2 The illuminating Hemisphere Energy and Intensity Energy is the intensity integrated over the solid angle through which it acts. Intensity is not a function of distance from the light source. The energy: E I Integration over Φ = d 2 0 the hemisphere: 2π Idω Energy incident Φi on an optically smooth surface is reflected and transmitted in a coherent fashion, i.e. there are no other effects such as scattering: Φ i = Φ r + Φ t = Φ i (F r + F t ) Fresnel Equation F r + F t =1 r reflection, i incident, t transmission Φi, Φr,Φt act through same solid angle so I is proportional to energy

3 Incoherent ReFlection and Transmission Surfaces in practice are not optically smooth. Some of the energy is lost in incoherent reflection and transmission components. These do not necessarily act through the same solid angle so must be integrated to find intensity. Φ i = Φ r + Φ t = Φ i (F r + F t ) optically smooth surface Φi, Φr,Φt act through same solid angle so I is proportional to energy I = I d K d cosθ f(σ) roughness function for r and t Rbd and Tbd bi-direction reflection and transmission functions of the geometry describing the incoherent reflection and transmission

4 Empirical ModelS Gross approximations have been used to solve the intensity equation I = Ambient + Diffuse + Specular Ambient Illumination in all directions product of many multiple reflections from all surfaces. I = If I a K a Ia is the intensity assumed constant for all surfaces and Ka determines how much ambient light is reflected from an objects surface. I = I a K a 0<=I a <=1 is the incident ambient light.

5 Empirical ModelS Gross approximations have been used to solve the intensity equation I = Ambient + Diffuse + Specular Diffuse Lambertian reflection from matt surfaces. Brightness depends only on the angle between the light source and the surface. It can be seen that the amount of light energy depends on the area of the surfaces which in turn depends on cosɵ and the intensity of the point light source (for a simple model) I = I p K d cosθ 0<=I p <=1 is the incident light.

6 Empirical Models Diffuse reflection If n and L are normalized I = I p K d n L 0 Kd 1 coefficient of diffuse illumination is a constant of the surface. I p is the incident light Specular Observed on shiny surfaces. Depends on angle of viewer. Light is reflected unequally in different directions. Perfect reflector (e.g. mirror) will only reflect light in the R direction. The Phong Model assumes the specular is a maximum when α = 0 and falls off rapidly as cos n α. If R and V are normalized: I = I p K s R V 0<=I p <=1 is the incidentlight

7 Phong Model Effect of moving the eye vs. moving light source

8 Calculating Reflections Diffuse Component = Kd * Ip * N.L Specular Component = Ks * Ip * (R.V) n L = vn + vs R = vn - vs R+L = 2vn vn has magnitude L.N and direction n vn = (N.L)N R = 2vn - L = 2 (N.L)N - L

9 Calculating Reflections If the light source is at infinity then N.L is constant over a flat surface. If the viewer is at infinity then R.V is constant over a flat surface. Maximum highlights are in the direction of the halfway vector, H when it is aligned with N. Where H=(L+V)/ L+V the specular term can be expressed as (N.H) n. When light source and viewer are at infinity H is constant. The model is empirical and different results are produced using (N.H) n and (R.V) n since α β Spec Component = Ks * Ip * (N.H) n Spec Component = Ks * Ip * (R.V) n

10 Specular Power The model is empirical and not physically based. The results of cos(ɵ) n look convincing but the function cos(ɵ) n = cos(ɵ)/(n-n*cos(ɵ)+cos(ɵ)) are quite similar and less expensive to compute

11 Light Source Attenuation As noted it is energy that decrease as an inverse square with distance, not intensity. Empirical models again used to simulate light source at a finite distance for diffuse lighting I = Kd * fatt Ip * n.l Various functions have been tried including 1/d 2,. The problem is that a square law makes the light attenuate too much for close light sources and not enough for distance light sources. fatt = min(1/(c1+c2d+c3d 2 ), 1) clamp at 1 to make sure it always attenuates an keep c1 to keep the denomiator from becoming too small. (according to F&VD)

12 ColoUr This subject is complex due to the non-linear nature of the eyes response to color. A simple approach is to use red, green and blue components separately, which means that material constants for each color component reflection are required: e.g. the diffuse color is represented by three values CdR, CdG, CdB, similarly for the ambient an specular components. Writing I for the color we have: I λ = I aλ C aλ K a + f att I pλ [C dλ K d (N L)+ C sλ K s (R V) n ])

13 Implementation of C a, C p, C s small specular power no reflection white specular large specular power no reflection white specular large specular power low reflection white specular large specular power low reflection yellow specular large specular power high reflection yellow specular surface ebrass surface dbrass surface cbrass surface cbrass surface cbrass amb diff spec amb diff spec amb diff spec amb diff spec amb diff spec specpow 2 reflect 0 specpow 10 reflect 0 specpow 35 reflect 0.1 specpow 35 reflect 0.1 specpow 35 reflect 0.4

14 Multiple Light Sources If there are m light sources the terms for each source are summed: I λ = I aλ C aλ K a + f att I pλ [C dλ K d (N L)+ C sλ K s (R V) n ]) This usually introduces a new problem that Iλ can exceed the maximum pixel value. Usually Iλ is normalized to 0 Iλ 1. One approach each Iλi could be clamped at 1/m An alternative to consider all the Iλ values for a pixel. I there is one that is too large and divide by the largest. This maintains hue and saturation at the expense of the value. Techniques such as this are fine for a single frame but present real problems in animation. Setting all the sources at the start of a sequence is similar to the problem of lighting a real scene that to be filmed.

15 Lighting Effects Highlights View dependent concentrations of light on a surface caused by non-diffuse reflectors Color Bleeding Diffuse reflection of light of on colored surface affecting the appearance of another surface Caustics View independent concentrations of light on a surface caused by non-diffuse reflectors Need multi-pass (hybrid) algorithms: Radiosity + Ray Tracing

16 Radiosity (courtesy Cornell University) This sculpture can be used to illustrate why modeling direct light reflections alone cannot replicate all nature light effects for computer graphics imagery A diagram drawn looking down on the sculpture shows that the colored surfaces face away from the viewer (who looks from the bottom of the diagram), but are bathed in light from a strong light source (at the top of the diagram). Only white surfaces face the viewer. A ray-traced version of the image shows only the light reaching the viewer by direct reflection - hence misses the color effects

17 Radiosity (courtesy Cornell University) This image, incorporating radiosity techniques for image generation, correctly models light reflections from diffuse surfaces, and captures the strong color effects that the sculptor intended. Ray Traced Version

18 Polygon Mesh Shading Mach Bands Mach bands refers to the exaggeration of the intensity change at any edge. At the border between two facets the lighter facet appears even lighter and the darker appears even darker. This is due to lateral inhibition of the human light receptors. The more light a receptor receives the more it inhibits the response of the adjacent receptors.

19 Gouraud Shading (intensity interpolation) Intensity interpolation along each scan line and along polygon edges I a = I 1 (I 1 I 2 )(Y 1 Y s ) / (Y 1 Y 2 ) I b = I 1 (I 1 I 3 )(Y 1 Y s ) / (Y 1 Y 3 ) I p = I b (I b I a )(X b X p ) / (X b X a ) Averaged Normal Nv is Ni/ Ni

20 Phong Shading (normal vector interpolation) Normal vector interpolation along each scan line and along polygon edges N a = N 1 (N 1 N 2 )(Y 1 Y s ) / (Y 1 Y 2 ) N b = N 1 (N 1 N 3 )(Y 1 Y s ) / (Y 1 Y 3 ) N p = N b (N b N a )(X b X p ) / (X b X a ) The normal vectors have been adjusted to give a highlight at tp0 but not at the other vertices. In the Gouraud interpolation scheme the highlight is lost, averaged out with the other vertex intensities. The Phong interpolation finds the correct highlight

21 More on Phong Shading Note that normal vectors should be normalized (normally) and more accurate normal vectors is better than more polygons. Phong Normal Vector Interpolation 792 polygons Normal Vectors Calculated directly from Implicit Surface 792 polygons Phong Normal Vector Interpolation 344 polygons Normal Vectors Calculated directly from Implicit Surface 344 polygons

22 PRoblems with Interpolation Methods Expensive since illumination calculation is repeated for every pixel. Also calculating and normalizing new normal. (Schlick equation and table look up methods). Shiluette edge Attempts have been made to modify normals to match a curve fitted to the edge (see Van Overveld and Wyvill) Perspective distortion Intensity interpolation is performed in screen space. The z has undergone a non-linear transformation

23 Problems with Interpolation Methods Orientation Dependence The results of an interpolation model are not independent of the projected polygon orientation. Results may differ when the polygon is rotated affecting animations. Problems at shared Vertices This problem is analaogous to the cracks problem in subdivided meshes. The undivided edge is interpolated differently to the two divided edges. Unrepresentative Vertex Normals Pathalogical cases where interpolated normals give poor results. Examples are staircase example and mobius strip.

24 Reducing the Expense of Phong Shading Expensive since illumination calculation is repeated for every pixel. Also calculating and normalizing new normal. If both viewer and light source at large distance then H is constant. To calculate highlights need angle between N and H. if this varies over the surface, then convincing highlights will be calculated Keep H constant and vary N.

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