Rendering: Reality. Eye acts as pinhole camera. Photons from light hit objects


 Alexander Holland
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1 Basic Ray Tracing
2 Rendering: Reality Eye acts as pinhole camera Photons from light hit objects
3 Rendering: Reality Eye acts as pinhole camera Photons from light hit objects
4 Rendering: Reality Eye acts as pinhole camera Photons from light hit objects Bounce everywhere Extremely few hit eye, form image
5 Rendering: Reality Useful abstraction: virtual image plane
6 Rendering: Reality Pros photorealistic embarrassingly parallel? Cons SLOW for all but extremely trivial scenes
7 Rendering: Ray Tracing Reverse of reality shoot rays through image plane see what they hit
8 Rendering: Ray Tracing Reverse of reality shoot rays through image plane see what they hit reflections? shadows?
9 Rendering: Ray Tracing Reverse of reality shoot rays through image plane see what they hit reflections? shadows? shoot secondary rays
10 Rendering: Ray Tracing Reverse of reality shoot rays through image plane see what they hit reflections? shadows? shoot secondary rays Embarrassingly parallel
11 Ray Tracing is Slow Very true in the past; still true today But realtime ray tracing is coming [Nvidia OptiX]
12 Why Slow? What is the time complexity?
13 Why Slow? What is the time complexity? Naïve algorithm: O(NR) R: number of rays N: number of objects
14 Why Slow? What is the time complexity? Naïve algorithm: O(NR) R: number of rays N: number of objects But rays can be cast in parallel each ray O(N) even faster with good culling
15 Why Slow? Despite being parallel: 1. poor cache coherence nearby rays can hit different geometry
16 Why Slow? Despite being parallel: 1. poor cache coherence nearby rays can hit different geometry 2. unpredictable must shade pixels whose rays hit object may require tracing rays recursively
17 Basic Algorithm For each pixel: shoot ray from camera through pixel find first object it hits if it hit something shade that pixel
18 Basic Algorithm For each pixel: shoot ray from camera through pixel find first object it hits if it hit something shade that pixel maybe shoot secondary rays
19 Shoot Rays From Camera Ray has origin and direction
20 Shoot Rays From Camera Ray has origin and direction Points on ray are the positive span
21 Shoot Rays From Camera Ray has origin and direction Points on ray are the positive span (why positive?)
22 Shoot Rays From Camera How to pick ray? obviously origin is eye
23 Shoot Rays From Camera How to pick ray? obviously origin is eye pick direction to pierce center of pixel
24 Shoot Rays From Camera How to pick ray? obviously origin is eye pick direction to pierce center of pixel
25 Shoot Rays From Camera How to pick ray? obviously origin is eye pick direction to pierce center of pixel Antialiasing: multiple rays/pixel
26 Find First Object Hit By Ray Collision detection: find all values of t where ray hits object boundary Take smallest positive value of t
27 Find First Object Hit By Ray Collision detection: find all values of t where ray hits object boundary Take smallest positive value of t
28 RayPlane Collision Detection Plane specified by: point on plane plane normal
29 RayPlane Collision Detection Plane specified by: point on plane plane normal
30 RayPlane Collision Detection Plane specified by: point on plane plane normal (what if t < 0?)
31 RayPlane Collision Detection Plane specified by: point on plane plane normal (what if t < 0?) (what if denominator = 0?)
32 RayTriangle Collision Detection First, intersect with triangle s plane Next: is P inside or outside the triangle?
33 RayTriangle Collision Detection Normal:
34 RayTriangle Collision Detection Normal: Idea: if P inside, must be left of line AB
35 RayTriangle Collision Detection Normal: Idea: if P inside, must be left of line AB
36 RayTriangle Collision Detection Normal: Idea: if P inside, must be on correct side of lines
37 RaySphere Collision Detection Sphere specified by center radius
38 RaySphere Collision Detection Sphere specified by center radius
39 RaySphere Collision Detection Sphere specified by center radius key idea: can square both sides
40 RaySphere Collision Detection Sphere specified by center radius Quadratic equation!
41 Zero, One, or Two Roots
42 RayBox Collision Detection Challenge: ray could hit any of six sides Could do lots of rayplane and pointinrectangle checks
43 What is Shading? Shading: coloring the pixels What does color depend on?
44 What is Shading? Shading: coloring the pixels What does color depend on? object material incoming light angle of viewer
45 Shading Materials Different materials can behave very differently opaque vs translucent vs transparent shiny vs dull
46 Shading Materials Different materials can behave very differently opaque vs translucent vs transparent shiny vs dull We classify different responses to light into types
47 Emissive Lighting Light generated within material
48 Diffuse Reflection Light comes in, bounces out randomly
49 Diffuse Reflection Light comes in, bounces out randomly Typical for rough unpolished materials View angle doesn t matter
50 Specular Reflection Light reflects perfectly Typical for smooth, polished surfaces
51 General Opaque Materials Lie on diffusespecular spectrum
52 General Opaque Materials Lie on diffusespecular spectrum Pure diffuse: Lambertian idealized material common in CV
53 General Opaque Materials Lie on diffusespecular spectrum Pure diffuse: Lambertian idealized material common in CV Pure specular: mirror
54 What About Translucent? Subsurface Scattering
55 What About Translucent? Subsurface Scattering Refraction
56 What About Translucent? Subsurface Scattering Refraction Structural Color Not today.
57 The Rendering Equation
58 The Rendering Equation
59 The Rendering Equation BRDF Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (encodes material)
60 Why the Cosine Term? Light at angle hits surface more sparsely Lambert s Cosine Law
61 BRDFs Positive and bidirectional: Captured for different materials, stored in libraries
62 BRDFs Positive and bidirectional: Captured for different materials, stored in libraries More complicated versions exist that account for wavelength, subsurface scattering, transmission, etc etc
63 The Rendering Equation Often too slow for graphics approximate!
64 Local Illumination Simplifying assumptions: ignore everything except: eye, light, and object
65 Local Illumination Simplifying assumptions: ignore everything except eye, light, and object basic version: no shadows, reflections, etc
66 Local Illumination Simplifying assumptions: ignore everything except eye, light, and object basic version: no shadows, reflections, etc but can support basic shadows/reflection
67 Local Illumination Simplifying assumptions: ignore everything except eye, light, and object basic version: no shadows, reflections, etc but can support basic shadows/reflection only point lights only simple (diffuse & specular) materials
68 Global Illumination
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