# CS 130 Exam I. Fall 2015

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1 S 3 Exam I Fall 25 Name Student ID Signature You may not ask any questions during the test. If you believe that there is something wrong with a question, write down what you think the question is trying to ask and answer that.

2 Question Points Score True/False Multiple hoice Written Total 2

3 True/False For each question, indicate whether the statement is true or false by circling T or F, respectively.. (T/F) Rasterization occurs before vertex transformation in the graphics pipeline. 2. (T/F) Rasterization may generate multiple fragments per pixel. 3. (T/F) lipping is performed after perspective division in the graphics pipeline. 4. (T/F) The OpenGL pipeline is primarily designed to implement global illumination. 5. (T/F) OpenGL supports z-bu ering. 6. (T/F) Matrix multiplication is associative but not commutative. 7. (T/F) Given any matrices M,M 2, and M 3,(M M 2 )M 3 = M (M 2 M 3 ). 8. (T/F) Given any matrices M,M 2, and M 3, M 3 M 2 M = M M 2 M (T/F) Perspective transformation is a linear transformation.. (T/F) Applying a perspective transformation in the graphics pipeline to a vertex involves dividing by its z coordinate.. (T/F) The viewport transformation maps from normalized device coordinates to screen space. 2. (T/F) lipping geometry against the view volume can be done independently on each vertex, make the graphics pipeline extremely fast. 3. (T/F) The directional light source idealization is appropriate for a light that is very close to the scene. 4. (T/F) When using the Phong Reflectance Model, we calculate the red, green, and blue color channels independently. 5. (T/F) When using the Phong Reflectance Model with smooth shading for a triangulated surface, we will calculate the Phong Reflectance Model once per triangle. 6. (T/F) Modern day GPUs allow the user to supply custom vertex and pixel shaders. 7. (T/F) This matrix is a rigid body transformation cos sin 2 Bsin A 8. (T/F) We can translate the vector by multiplying it by the matrix 3 2 A A 9. (T/F) Gouraud shading requires more computation than Phong shading. 2. (T/F) The OpenGL graphics pipeline allows for multiple textures to be bound to the same object. 3

4 2 Multiple hoice For each question, circle exactly one of (a)-(e), unless otherwise stated.. onsider the use of homogeneous coordinates (x, y, z, w) T in the graphics pipeline. I. (x, y, z, w) T can be used to represent either a 3D point or a 3D vector. II. w = for a 3D vector. III. Nonzero values of w are used to e ect translation and perspective transformation. (b) I and II only (c) II and III only (d) I and III only (e) I, II and III 4

5 2. onsider the OpenGL graphics pipeline. Which statements are true? I. Pipelining increases throughput and decreases latency. II. III. (b) II only (c) III only (d) I and II only OpenGL sorts triangles to determine visibility. In modern OpenGL, the user may supply shaders which will execute on the GPU. (e) I and III only 3. Which of the following are true? I. Backface culling refers to eliminating geometry with backfacing normals. II. III. The Painter s algorithm attempts to sort fragments and draw them back to front. Using z-bu ering, shading calculations will be done for fragments that may never appear on screen. (b) I and II only (c) II and III only (d) I and III only (e) I, II and III 4. oncerning flat, smooth, and Phong shading, I. in flat shading the shading calculation is done once per triangle, while in Phong shading the shading calculation is done once per fragment. II. III. (b) I and II only flat shading does not require any normals. smooth shading requires interpolation of normals to vertices. (c) I and III only (d) II and III only (e) I, II and III 5

6 5. Match the type of transformation in the left column with the example transformation matrix in the right by drawing lines between the matching boxes. translation perspective nonuniform scale identity A 5 A A 3 2 A 6. Perspective transformations I. are nonlinear transformations. II. preserve the z ordering of vertices between the near and far planes. III. can change the sign of the z coordinate for vertices behind the eye. (b) I and II only (c) I and III only (d) II and III only (e) I, II and III 6

7 7. onsider the Midpoint algorithm given here: () y = y (2) d = f(x+,y+/2) (3) for x = x to x (4) do (5) draw(x,y) (6) if (d<) (7) then (8) y = y+ (9) d = d+(y-y)+(x-x) () else () d = d+(y-y) (2) end (3) end Which statements are true? I. For a line with slope m>, we should change the outer loop in line (3) to be over y. II. Lines (9) and () update the decision variable d through an incremental evaluation of the line equation f. III. This algorithm fails if d is ever. (b) I and II only (c) I and III only (d) II and III only (e) I, II and III 8. Which of the following statements about barycentric coordinates (,, ) for triangles are true? I. If s = + +,thens< for points inside the triangle, s> for points outside the triangle, and s = for points on the triangle. II. At least one of,, and will be for a point on the triangle. III.,, and can be used to interpolate vertex attributes across the face of the triangle. (b) I and II only (c) I and III only (d) II and III only (e) I, II and III 7

8 9. onsider the 3D vectors, x, y, illustrated below, and dot product and cross product. Which statements are true? two-vectors.png I. x y >. II. x y =, because x and y lie in the same plane. III. x x = y y. (b) II only (c) I and II only (d) I and III only (e) None 2. onsider the following equation from the Lambertian reflectance model, where R a, R d, L a, and L d are the ambient and di use reflectance of the object, and the ambient and di use components of the light, respectively, l is the light vector, and n is the object normal vector. I = R a L a + R d L d max(, l n) I. Polygons facing away from the light will necessarily have I =. II. III. (b) II only (c) I and II only This formula can capture specular highlights. Generally n will vary over the surface of the object but l will be constant. (d) I and III only (e) None 8

9 3 Written Response 2. onsider a line in the plane going through the points (, 2) and (2, 4). (a) Write down the explicit equation for the line, with x the independent variable and y = f(x) the dependent variable. (b) Write down an implicit equation for the line. Identify a normal to the line. (c) Write down a parametric equation for the line segment going through the two points, in terms of a single parameter t 2 [, ]. 9

10 22. ome up with a series of matrices as well as an order of multiplication (you don t need to actually perform the multiplication) to transform the triangle (,), (,), (,3) to (-,), (-3,),(-,-6). Sketch the triangle at every step of the transformation.

11 23. onsider a ray with endpoint a and a normalized direction u, p(t) =a + tu, t, () and a sphere of radius r, centered at the origin. The implicit equation for the sphere is given as follows: f(p) =p p r 2 = (2) (a) Describe geometrically the ways in which the ray can intersect/not intersect with the sphere. I.e., when is there exactly one intersection, when are there two intersections, and when are there no intersections? (b) Find an expression for t where the intersection occurs by plugging eq. () into eq. (2) and solving for t. How can this expression to be used to distinguish the three cases described in part (a)? Hint (Quadratic formula): Solutions to ax 2 + bx + c =are x = b±p b 2 4ac 2a (c) Write pseudocode for an algorithm for finding the intersection points or identifying that there is is no intersection.

12

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