# Course Title: Computer Graphics Course no: CSC209

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1 Course Title: Computer Graphics Course no: CSC209 Nature of the Course: Theory + Lab Semester: III Full Marks: Pass Marks: Credit Hrs: 3 Course Description: The course coversconcepts of graphics hardware, software, and applications,data structures for representing 2D and 3D geometric objects, drawing algorithms for graphical objects, techniques for representing and manipulating geometric objects, illumination and lighting models, and concept of virtual reality. Course Objectives: The objective of this course is to understand the theoretical foundation as wellas the practical applications of 2D and 3D graphics. Detail Syllabus Chapter / Units Teaching Teaching Methodology Hours Unit 1: Introduction of Computer Graphics Class Lecture 3 Hours 1.1 A Brief Overview of Computer Graphics, Areas of applications 1.2 Graphics Hardware: Display Technology, Architecture of Raster-Scan Displays, Interlaced refresh procedure, refresh buffer, frame buffer, Vector Displays, Display Processors, Hard copy devices. Input Devices 1.3 Graphics Software: Software standards, Coordinate Representations, PHIGS Workstations, Need of machine independent graphics language 1.4 Human visual system: basic of how we perceived the world, strength and weakness of the human visual system 1.5 Color models: RGB, CMYK, HVS, XYZ 2. Scan Conversion Algorithm Class Lecture 6 Hours 2.1 Scan Converting a Point and a straight Line: DDA Line + Lab Session Algorithm, Bresenham s Line Algorithm 2.2 Scan Converting Circle and Ellipse :Mid Point Circle and Ellipse Algorithm 2.3 Area Filling: Scan Line Polygon fill Algorithm,Insideoutside Test,Scan line fill of Curved Boundary area, Boundary-fill and Flood-fill algorithm 1

2 3.Two-Dimensional Geometric Transformations Class Lecture 5 Hours 3.1 Two-Dimensional translation, Rotation,Scaling, Reflection + Lab Session and Shearing 3.2 Homogeneous Coordinate and 2D Composite Transformations. Transformation between Co-ordinate Systems 3.3 Two Dimensional Viewing: Viewing pipeline,window to viewport coordinate transformation 3.4 Clipping: Point,Lines(Cohen Sutherland line clipping,liang-barskylineclipping),polygon Clipping(Sutherland Hodgeman polygon clipping) 4. Three-Dimensional Geometric Transformation Class Lecture 5 Hours 4.1 Three-Dimensional translation, Rotation,Scaling, + Lab Session Reflection and Shearing 4.2 Three-Dimensional Composite Transformations 4.3 Three-Dimensional Viewing: Viewing pipeline, world to screen viewing transformation, Projection concepts(orthographic, parallel,perspective projections) 5. 3D Objects Representation Class Lecture 7 Hours 5.1 Representing Surfaces: Boundary and Space partitioning + Lab Session Polygon Surface: Polygon tables, Surface normal and Spatial orientation of surfaces, Plane equations, Polygon meshes Wireframe Representation Blobby Objects 5.2 Representing Curves: Parametric Cubic Curves, Spline Representation,Cubic spline interpolation, Hermite Curves,Bezier and B-spline Curve and surface, Fractals and its applications 5.3 Quadric Surface: Sphere and Ellipsoid 6. Solid Modeling Class Lecture 4 Hours 6.1 Solids and solid modeling, boundary point, interior point, closure 6.2 Sweep,Boundary and Spatial-Partitioning Representation 2

3 6.3 Binary Space Partition Trees (BSP) 6.4 Octree Representation 7. Visible Surface Detections Class Lecture 5 Hours 7.1 Visible surface and hidden surface, Coherence for visibility + Lab Session 7.2 Image Space and Object Space Techniques 7.3 Back Face Detection, Depth Buffer (Z-buffer), A-Buffer and Scan-Line Algorithms 7.4 Depth Sorting Method (Painter s Algorithm) 7.5 BSP tree Method, Octree and Ray Tracing 8. Illumination Models and Surface Rendering Techniques Class Lecture 5 Hours 8.1 Defining Realism, Image Synthesis Validation, challenges in computing light, optics model 8.2 Basic Illumination Models:Ambientlight, Diffuse reflection,specular reflection and Phong model 8.3 Intensity attenuation and Color consideration,transparency,shadows 8.4 Polygon Rendering Methods : Constant intensity shading, Gouraud shading, Phong Shading and Fast Phong Shading, Real time vs offline rendering 9. Introduction to Virtual Reality Class Lecture 2 Hours 9.1 Concept of Virtual reality 9.2 Virtual Reality Components of VR System, Types of VR System, 3D Position Trackers, Navigation and Manipulation Interfaces 9.3 Visual computation in virtual reality 9.4 Augmented Reality 9.5 Application of VR 10. Introduction to OpenGL Class Lecture 3 Hours 10.1Introduction, Callback functions, Color commands, + Lab Session Drawings pixels, lines, polygons using OpenGL, OpenGL and Direct X APIs - key differences, Viewing, Lighting and reflectance model 3

4 Text Books: 1. Donald Hearne and M.Pauline Baker, Computer Graphics, C Versions. Prentice Hall Reference Books: 1. J.D. Foley, S.K. Feiner and J.F. Hughes, Computer Graphics Principles and Practises (Second Edition in C) 2. R.K. Maurya, Computer Graphics with Virtual Reality, Wiley India 3. F.S. Hill, Stephen M.Kelley, Computer Graphics using Open GL Prentice Hall Laboratory Works: Students should be able to write program on the most of the contents listed in syllabus, using any known programming language (C, C++) in previous semester. Majorly, students should on computer graphics primitives like line, circle and ellipse drawing algorithm to hidden surface removal techniques. After completing the basic lab session the students must be able to design some project works like game, 3D rotation, screen saver etc. Some sample lab sessions can be as following:- Unit 2 : Scan Conversions Algorithm (10 Hours) Study of Fundamental Graphics Functions Implementation of Line drawing algorithms: DDA Algorithm, Bresenham's Algorithm Implementation of Circle drawing algorithms: Bresenham's Algorithm, Mid-Point Algorithm Unit 3 : Two-Dimensional Geometric Transformations ( 4 Hours) Simulation of 2D transformation, Rotation and Scaling Write a program to implement Cohen Sutherland line clipping algorithm Unit 4 : Three-Dimensional Geometric Transformation (12 Hours) Write a program to perform shear transformation on a rectangle Write a program to perform 2D Transformation on a line Write a program to draw a car using in build graphics function and translate it from bottom left corner to right bottom corner of screen Write a program to draw a cube using in build library function and perform 3D transformations o Translations in x, y, z directions o Rotation by angle 450 about z axis, rotation by 600 about y-axis in succession. o Scaling in x-direction by a factor of 2, scaling in y- direction by a factor of 3 4

5 Unit 5 : 3D Objects Representation ( 4 Hours) Implementation of polygon tables. Write a program to draw Bezier curve, sphere Unit 7 : Visible Surface Detections (10 Hours) Back face detection:- Implementation of Depth Buffer, A Buffer, Scan-Line algorithm Implementation of rotation of 3D cube. Unit 10 : Introduction to OpenGL (5 Hours) Event driven programming Point, Line and Polygon Drawing 3D objects 5

6 Model Question Tribhuvan University Institute of Science and Technology Course Title: Computer Graphics Full Marks: 60 Course No: CSC 209 Pass Marks: 24 Level: B. Sc CSIT Second Year/ Third Semester Time: 3 Hrs Section A Long Answer Questions Attempt any TWO questions [ 2 10 = 20] 1. Explain the working details of DDA algorithm? Explain. Digitize a line with end points A(6,12) and B(10,5) using Bresenham s line drawing algorithm. [5 + 5] 2. How can polygons be clipped? Why is Phong shading also called Normal Vector Interpolation scheme? Explain. [5 + 5] 3. Given a window bordered by (1,2) at the lower left and (16,12) at the upper right, give the screen coordinates of a triangle with vertices (3,2), (10,7.5) and (5,5) when mapped into a viewport with corners (100,100) and (400,200). Provide accurate illustrations of the window, viewport, and the untransformed and transformed triangles with your answer. [10] Section B Short Answer Questions Attempt any EIGHT questions [8 5 = 40] 4. How to animate a two dimensional figure using transformations? Explain with example. [5] 5. What are the key issues prevalent in producing a Virtual reality scene? Describe the Binary Space Partition tree. [2 + 3] 6. How can a polygon surface be filled using the Flood fill approach? Explain. [5] 7. What is the significance of vanishing points in Perspective Projection? Explain. [5] 8. Explain ambient light, diffuse reflection and specular reflection with examples. [5] 9. Compute the midpoint of the Bezier Curve with control points p0 = (0,0,1), p1 = (1,0,1) and p2 = (1,2,0). [5] 10. How does a polygon can be created in OpenGL? Illustrate with an example. [5] 11. How does a video controller and a frame buffer jointly collaborate to produce graphical display on the screen, in case of a Raster Display? [5] 12. Write short notes on (Any TWO) [ ] a. Polygon Tables b. Augmented Reality c. Painter s algorithm 6

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