# CoE4TN4 Image Processing. Chapter 8 Image Compression

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1 CoE4TN4 Image Processing Chapter 8 Image Compression

2 Image Compression Digital images: take huge amount of data Storage, processing and communications requirements might be impractical More efficient representation of digital images is necessary Image compression: reduces the amount of data required to represent a digital image by removing redundant data Theoretical work (1940 Shannon): information, its representation, transmission and compression Image compression is an enabling technology: multimedia, video conferencing, remote sensing, Fax,. 2

3 Fundamentals Data compression: process of reducing the amount of data required to represent a given quantity of information Data and information are not the same. Data is used to convey information. Various amount of data may be used to represent the same information 3

4 Fundamentals Suppose that two representations have the same amount of information one using n1 units of data and the other one n2 units of data. Compression ratio: C R =n1/n2 Relative data redundancy of the first set is defined as: R D =1-1/ C R n2<<n1, C R approaches infinity and R D approaches one. This means that the data n1 has been highly redundant. n2>>n1, C R approaches zero and R D approaches minus infinity. This means that the data n2 contains more data (expansion instead of compression). 4

5 Fundamentals A typical compression ratio: 10 C R =10, R D =1-1/ 10=0.9 90% of the data in the first set is redundant Three forms of data redundancies exist in digital images 1. Coding redundancy 2. Spatial and temporal redundancy 3. Irrelevant information 5

6 Coding redundancy The gray-level histogram of an image can provide a great deal of insight into the construction of codes to reduce the amount of data used to represent the image Normalized gray levels Probability of k th gray-level 6

7 Coding redundancy Suppose that gray-level r k is represented by l(r k ) bits Average length of code words used for the image: Total bits=mnl avg Average length of a code is sometimes called the rate of that code 7

8 Coding redundancy If the same number of bits is used for all gray levels (natural m-bit binary code) If fewer bits are assigned to more probable gray-levels than to the less probable ones, compression can be achieved. This is called Variable Length Coding (VLC). 8

9 Spatial and temporal redundancy 9

10 Spatial and temporal redundancy Codes designed based on histogram do not exploit the correlation between pixels. These correlations result from the structural or geometrical relationships between the objects in the image. The value of any pixel is highly correlated to its neighbors and the information carried by individual pixels is small. 10

11 Spatial and temporal redundancy How to reduce spatial and temporal redundancy? The image (which is a 2-D array) is transformed into a more efficient format. This process is called mapping or transformations. The transformation should reduce the redundancy. Example: the transform could be the difference between adjacent pixels The transform (or mapping) should be reversible. The original image should be recoverable from the transform. 11

12 Irrelevant Information The eye does not response with equal sensitivity to all visual information Certain information has less relative importance than other This information is said to be psychovisually redundant. It can be eliminated without significantly impairing the quality of image perception. Since the elimination of irrelevant information results in a loss of quantitative information, it is commonly referred to as quantization. 12

13 Measuring Image Information A random event E that occurs with probability P(E) is said to contain : units of information I(E) self-information If P(E)=1 then I(E)=0, no uncertainty is associated with the event, no information would be transformed by communicating that E has occurred. 13

14 Elements of Information Theory Information source generates a random sequence of symbols. The set of source symbols (source alphabet) A: Probability of the symbols of the source 14

15 Elements of Information Theory Average information per source output H: uncertainty or entropy of the source H is the average amount of information obtained by observing a single source output If the source symbols are equally probable, the entropy is maximized 15

16 Noiseless coding theorem What is the minimum average code word length that can be achieved? Noiseless coding theorem or Shannon s first theorem. The minimum average code word length that can be achieved is equal to the entropy of the source. One of the ways that we can get closer and closer to the entropy is to group the source outputs together and build n- tuples (nth-extension) 16

17 Noiseless coding theorem Entropy: H=0.918 bits/symbol Average code word length per symbol (first extension) = 1 Average code word length per symbol (second extension) = 1.89/2=

18 Fidelity Criteria Since information may be lost during compression a means of quantifying the information loss is desirable. 2 type of criteria: 1. Objective fidelity criteria 2. Subjective fidelity criteria Objective fidelity criteria: the information loss is expressed as a function of input image (original image) and output image (compressed and decompressed) 18

19 Root mean square (rms) error: Fidelity Criteria Mean square signal to noise ratio: 19

20 Fidelity Criteria Objective fidelity criteria: simple and convenient, sometimes misleading Subjective fidelity criteria: measuring image quality by the subjective evaluation of a group of viewers and averaging their evaluations. 20

21 Image Compression Models A compression system consists of two distinct structure of blocks: encoder and decoder. Encoder: creates a set of symbols from the input image Decoder: reconstructs an output image 21

22 Encoder Encoder: responsible for reducing or eliminating any coding, interpixel or pschovisual redundancies in the input image. Encoding can be modeled by three independent operations. Each operation is designed to reduce one of the three redundancies. Mapper Quantizer Symbol Encoder 22

23 Encoder Mapper (transform): transforms the input data into a format designed to spatial and temporal redundancies. This operation generally is reversible. It may or may not reduce the amount of data required to represent the image. Quantizer: reduces the accuracy of the mapper s output. This stage removes the irrelevant information. This operation is irreversible. It should be omitted when error-free (loss less) compression is desired. Mapper Quantizer Symbol Encoder 23

24 Encoder Symbol coder: creates a fixed or variable length code to represent the quantizer s output. In most cases a VLC is used (shortest code words to the most frequently occurring values of the quantizer s output) The operation is reversible. Mapper Quantizer Symbol Encoder 24

25 Contains two components: Symbol decoder Decoder Inverse mapper They perform the inverse operations of symbol encoder and mapper. Symbol Decoder Inverse Mapper 25

26 Image Formats, Compression Standards 26

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30 Huffman coding Huffman coding is the most popular technique for VLC coding and removing the coding redundancies. The first step in Huffman coding is to create a series of source reductions by ordering the probabilities of the symbols and combining the lowest probabilities into a single symbol that replaces them in the next source reduction. The second step is to code each reduced source. 30

31 Huffman coding A A A A A A Lavg= x2+0.1x3+0.1x4+0.06x5+0.04x5=2.2 bits/symbol H=2.14 bits/symbol 31

32 Huffman coding Huffman code is an instantaneous, uniquely decodable, block code: Instantaneous: each code word in a string of code symbols can be decoded without referencing following symbols Block code: each source symbol is mapped into a fixed code word. Unique: each string of code symbols can be decoded in only one way. 32

33 Golomb Coding Coding of nonnegative integers with exponentially decaying probability n nonnegative integer to be coded, m parameter of the Golomb code 1. Form the unary code of quotient bn/mc(unary code of an integer q is q 1s followed by a 0) 2. Let k = dlog 2 me c =2 k m r = n mod m and compute r r 0 r truncated to k-1 bits 0 apple r<c = r + c truncated to k bits otherwise 3. Concatenate the results of steps 1 and 2 33

34 Golomb Coding 34

35 Golomb Coding Golomb codes are seldom used for coding of image intensities Intensity differences can be coded using Golomb codes after converting negative values to positive M(n) = 2n n 0 2 n 1 n<0 35

36 Arithmetic Coding There is no one to one correspondence between source symbols and code words. An entire sequence of source symbols is assigned a single code word. Each source symbol is represented by an interval in [0,1). As the number of symbols increases the size of the interval reduces in accordance with the probability of occurrence of symbols. 36

37 a1 0.2 [0,0.20 a2 0.2 [0.2,0.4) a3 0.4 [0.4,0.8) Arithmetic Coding a4 0.2 [0.8,1.0) Sequence to be coded a1 a2 a3 a3 a4 37

38 Arithmetic Coding Inaccurate probability models can lead to non-optimal results Solution: use an adaptive, context dependent probability model Adaptive: symbols probabilities are updated as the symbols are coded. Context dependent: probabilities are based on a predefined neighborhood of pixels around the symbol being coded. 38

39 LZW At the beginning of the coding process, a codebook or dictionary containing the source symbols to be coded is constructed. The encoder examines each symbol in the message and concatenates it with the symbols following it to find the longest sequence which is in the dictionary. If after concatenating, the sequence is not in the dictionary, the encoder adds the sequence as the new element to the dictionary. 39

40 LZW: Example Encode wabba_wabba_wabba_wabba_woo_woo_woo Output: Dictionary: 1. _ 6. wa 11. _w 16. ba_ 21. oo 2. a 7. ab 12. wab 17. _wa 22. o_ 3. b 8. bb 13. bba 18. abb 23. _wo 4. o 9. ba 14. a_w 19. ba_w 24. oo_ 5. w 10. a_ 15. wabb 20. wo 25. _woo 40

41 LZW LZW compression has been integrated in many imaging file formats including GIF, TIFF and PDF. Most practical applications require a strategy for handling dictionary overflow A simple solution is to flush or reinitialize the dictionary when it becomes full A more complex solution is to monitor compression performance and flush the dictionary when compression becomes poor or unacceptable. 41

42 Run Length Coding Run-length coding: coding the length of runs instead of coding individual values Exp: 190 white pixels, followed by 30 black, followed by 210 white Instead of coding 430 pixels individually, we code the sequence of 190,30, 210 along with an indication of the color of the first string 42

43 G3 Group 3: includes two coding schemes: 1. 1-D: coding of each line is performed independently of any other line 2. 2-D: coding of one line is performed using line to line correlation. 1-D coding: is a run-length coding scheme in which each line is represented as alternative white and black runs from left to right. The first run is always a white run. So, if the first pixel is black, the white run has a length of zero. Runs of different lengths occur with different probabilities, therefore they are coded using VLC (variable length codes). CCITT uses Huffman coding 43

44 G3 The number of possible length of runs is huge and it is not feasible to build a code book that large. The run length rl is expressed as: r l =64*m+t t=0,1,..,63 m=1,2,, 27 To represent r l, we use the corresponding codes for m and t. The code for t are called terminating codes and for m make-up codes. If r l <63 only a terminating code is used Otherwise both a make-up code and a terminating code are used A unique EOL (end of line) codeword is used to terminate each line. 44

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47 G3 2-D coding (modified READ=MR): rows of a facsimile image are heavily correlated. Therefore it would be easier to code the transition points with reference to the previous line. a0: the last pixel known to both encoder and decoder. At the beginning of encoding each line a0 refers to an imaginary white pixel to the left of actual pixel. While it is often a transition pixel it does not have to be. a1: the first transition point to the right of a0. It has an opposite color of a0. a2: the second transition pixel to the right of a0. Its color is opposite of a1. 47

48 G3 b1: the first transition pixel on the line above currently being coded, to the right of a0 whose color is opposite of a0. b2: the first transition pixel to the right of b1 in the line above the current line 48

49 G3 If b1 and b2 lie between a0 and a1 (pass mode): no transition until b2. Then a0 moves to b2 and the coding continues. Transmitter transmits code If a1 is detected before b2 If distance between a1 and b1 (number of pixels) is less than or equal to 3, we send the location of a1 with respect to b1, move a0 to a1 and the coding continues (vertical mode) If the distance between a1 and b1 is larger than 3, we go back to 1-D run length coding and encode the distance between a0 and a1 and a1 and a2 (horizontal mode) using run-length coding. a0 is moved to a2 and the coding continues. 49

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52 Symbol Coding Symbol or token coding: image is represented as a collection of frequently occurring sub-images called symbol Symbols are stored in the symbol dictionary Image is coded as a set of triplets {(x 1,y 1,t 1 ), (x 2,y 2,t 2 ), } Storing repeated symbols once can compress images 52

53 Symbol Coding 53

54 Bit-plane coding This method is based on decomposing a multilevel (monochrome or color) image into a series of binary images and compressing each binary image. We review different approaches for decomposition and compression of binary images. 54

55 Bit plane decomposition One 8-bit pixel value Bit plane 7 (most significant) Bit plane 0 (least significant) 55

56 56 Bit plane slicing LSB MSB

57 Bit-plane decomposition Disadvantage: a small change in gray level can have a significant impact in bit planes. Example: two adjacent pixels with values of 127 and : 01,111, : 10,000,000 There is a transition (0 to 1 or 1 to 0) in every bit plane at the location of these pixels. This transition reduces the coding efficiency. 57

58 Bit-plane decomposition Alternative method: first represent the image by an m-bit Gray Code. Property of Gray code: successive code words differ only in one bit position. Small changes in the gray level are less likely to affect all bit planes. Example: two adjacent pixels with values of 127 and : 01,000, : 11,000,000 To convert a m-1 a m-2 a 0 to Gray code: g m-1= a m-1 g i = a i a i+1 58

59 Compressing the bit planes A simple but effective method of compressing a binary image (or bit plane) is to use special code words to identify large areas of contiguous 1 s or 0 s. Constant Area Coding: The image is divided into mxn blocks. The blocks are classified as all white, all black or mixed. The most probable category is assigned the one bit code word 0. The other two categories are assigned the code words 10 and 11. The mixed intensity category code is followed by the mn bit patterns of the block. 59

60 Compressing the bit planes Binary Tree based method: the binary image is decomposed successively into smaller and smaller subblocks. A white block is coded as a 0 and all other blocks are assigned a prefix of 1 and divided into smaller subblocks. If a subblock is white it is represented by 0 so the code will be 10. If the subblock is not white, the decomposing process is repeated until a predefined subblock size is reached and coded as either a 0 (if it is all white) or a 1 followed by the block bit pattern. 60

61 Compressing the bit planes One dimensional run-length coding: Each row of an image or bit plane is represented by a sequence of lengths that describe successive runs of black and white pixels. Example: > The problem is to determine the value of the first run. The most common approaches for determining the value of first run: 1. To specify the value of the first run in each row 2. To assume that each row begins with a white run whose length may be zero 61

62 Transform Coding The modification is performed on the transform of an image A reversible, linear transform is used to map the image into a set of transform coefficients. The transform coefficients are then quantized and coded. A significant number of the coefficients have small magnitude and can be coarsely quantized (or discarded entirely) with little image distortion. 62

63 Transform Coding The goal of transformation process is to decorelate the pixels or to pack as much information as possible into the smallest number of coefficients. Note that compression is achieved during the quantization of the transformed coefficients not during transform. 63

64 Transform Coding The choice of particular transform depends on the amount of reconstruction error that can be tolerated and computational resources available. DFT 64

65 Discrete Cosine Transform) DCT 65

66 Walsh-Hadamard Transform (WHT) b k (z) is the kth bit (from right to left) in the binary representation of z p 0 (u)=b m-1 (u) p 1 (u)=b m-1 (u)+ b m-2 (u) P m-1 (u)=b 1 (u)+ b 0 (u) 66

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68 Transform Coding Transformations that pack the most information into the fewest coefficients provide the best approximation, and consequently the smallest reconstruction error. Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) is the optimal transformation in an information packing sense. It minimizes the mean-square-error for any input image and any number of retained coefficients. KLT is data dependent: obtaining the KLT basis images is computationally complex. 68

69 Transform Coding KLT is seldom used in practice, instead DCT whose bases images are fixed, normally is selected. DCT has been used in international standards for image compression. It has been implemented in a single IC. Subimage size: affects transform coding error and computational complexity. Normally it is selected as a power of 2 (simplifies the computations) 69

70 Bit allocation Bit allocation: which transform coefficients are kept and what is the precision that is used to represent them. Retaining coefficients is equivalent to applying a mask to the coefficients. The mask is one where the coefficients are kept and zero where the coefficients are discarded. Precision of representation: number of levels of scalar quantizer used for a coefficient Retaining the coefficients: 1. Maximum variance (zonal coding) 2. Maximum magnitude (threshold coding) 70

71 Zonal Coding Uses the information theory concept of viewing information as uncertainty. Transform coefficients of maximum variance carry the most picture information and should be retained. How to calculate the variance: 1. From the (N/n)(N/n) transformed subimage arrays 2. An assumed image model Coefficients of maximum variance are located around the origin of the transform The retained coefficients must be quantized and coded. 71

72 Threshold coding In zonal coding a single, fixed mask is used for all subimages. Threshold coding is adaptive: the location of the transform coefficients retained for each subimage vary from one subimage to another one. For each subimage, the transform coefficients of largest magnitude make the most significant contribution to reconstructed subimage quality. When the mask is applied to the subimage for which it was derived, the resulting nxn array is reordered (zigzag scanning) and the 1-D sequence which contains long runs of zeros is run-length coded. 72

73 Threshold coding What is the threshold and how it is obtained? 1. A single global threshold for all subimages 2. A single threshold for each subimage 3. The threshold can be varied as a function of the location of each coefficient within the subimage. 73

74 Lossless predictive coding In this technique there is no need to decompose the image into bit planes. This technique eliminates the interpixel redundancies of closely spaced pixels. How? By extracting and coding only the new information in each pixel New information: the difference between actual and predicted value of that pixel 74

75 Lossless predictive coding Predictors in encoder and decoder are the same. Various local, global and adaptive methods can be used to generate the prediction 75

76 Linear predictor is common: Lossless predictive coding Previous pixels are used to estimate the value of the current pixel The previous pixels could be on the same row (column) with the current pixel (1-D prediction) or around the current pixel (2-D) " m # X ˆf(n) =round i f(n i) i=1 76

77 Lossy compression Lossy compression: compromising the accuracy of the reconstructed image in exchange for increased compression Good reconstructed images even with a compression factor of 30:1. The principle difference between lossy and lossless compression is presence or absence of quantizer. 77

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79 Lossy predictive coding The prediction at the decoder and encoder should be the same. This will prevent error built up at the decoder output 79

80 Delta modulator 80

81 Optimal quantizer t=q(s) Quantizer is completely described by t i and s i the the first quadrant. s i : decision points t i : reconstruction levels Design problem: select s i and t i for a particular optimization criterion and input probability density function p(s) 81

82 Optimal quantizer If mean square error is used and p(s) is assumed to be even then (Lloyd-Max quantizer): 82

83 Wavelet coding Image is wavelet transformed Many of the computed coefficients carry little visual information, they can be quantized. The quantization can exploit positional correlation across decomposition levels. 83

84 Wavelet coding Wavelet functions selected for wavelet compression, affect the performance of wavelet compression system The most widely used wavelet functions for compression are Daubechies wavelets. Another factor affecting wavelet coding computational complexity and reconstruction error is the number of levels. In many applications, the resolution of image and the scale of the lowest useful approximation normally determine the number of transform levels. 84

85 Wavelet coding 85

86 Wavelet coding Largest factor effecting wavelet compression and reconstruction error is coefficient quantization Effectiveness of the quantization can be improved significantly by 1. introducing an enlarge quantization interval around zero called a dead zone 2. adapting the size of quantization interval from scale to scale 86

87 JPEG 2000 JPEG2000 extends JPEG to provide increased flexibility in compression and access to compressed data First step of encoding process is to DC level shift the samples of the image by subtracting 2 Ssiz-1 (Ssiz is number of bits representing each pixel) After the image has been level shifted it is optionally divided into tiles Tiles are rectangular arrays of pixels One dimensional discrete wavelet transform of rows and columns of each tile is then computed For lossless compression, transform is based on a biorthogonal 5-3 coefficient scaling and wavelet vector 87

88 JPEG 2000 A rounding procedure is defined for non-integer valued transform coefficients In lossy compression, a 9-7 coefficient scaling and wavelet vector is employed The transform produces four subbands, an approximation, horizontal, vertical and diagonal Transform might be repeated on the approximation component Coefficients in subbands are quantized The final steps of encoding are coefficient bit modeling, arithmetic coding, bit stream layering and packetizing. 88

89 JPEG 2000 Coefficients of each transformed tile subbands are arranged into rectangular blocks called code blocks Code blocks are individually coded a bit plane at a time Each bit plane is processed in three passes: significant propagation, magnitude refinement, and cleanup Outputs are arithmetically coded and grouped with similar passes from other code blocks to form layers 89

90 Video compression standards Video compression standards can be grouped into two categories: 1. video teleconferencing standards (H.261, H H.263) 2. multimedia standards (MPEG1, MPEG2, MPEG4) Both groups are built around a hybrid block-based DPCM/ DCT coding scheme There are three basic types of encoded output frames 1. Frames that are coded without any reference to past frames (I frames) 90

91 Video compression standards Because I frames do not use temporal correlation, the compression rate is low I frames provide the highest degree of random access, ease of editing, and greatest resistance to errors 2. Predictive coded (P frames): are coded using motion compensation prediction from the last I or P frame, whichever happens to be closest. Compression efficiency of P frames is substantially higher than I frames. 91

92 Video compression standards 3. Bidirectionally predictive coded (B frames): achieve a high level of compression by using motion compensation prediction from the most recent frame and the closest future frame. By using both past and future for prediction, generally we can get better compression than if we only use prediction based on the past. 92

93 Video compression standards 93

94 Lossy compression In a lossless compression, the reconstructed signal is identical to the original signal Only a limited amount of compression can be obtained with lossless compression There is a floor (entropy of the source) below which we cannot drive the size of the compressed signal In some applications consequences of loss of information may prohibit us from loss of information (bank records, medical images) 94

95 Lossy compression If the resources are limited and we do not require absolute integrity, we can improve the amount of compression by accepting certain degree of loss during compression Lossless compression: rate is the only performance measure In lossy compression rate by itself is not enough A distortion measure (difference between original and reconstructed data) is also required Goal in lossy compression: incur minimum amount of distortion while compressing to the lowest possible rate There is a tradeoff between minimizing rate and keeping distortion small 95

96 Source Coding Theorems What is the smallest rate, subject to a given distortion, at which the information of the source can be represented? For every source there is a Rate-Distortion (RD) function that gives the minimum rate achievable for a given distortion. RD function can be computed analytically for simple sources and distortion measures and iteratively for more complex situation. RD functions have typical form shown below. RD function is a lower bound, and the source coding theorem tells us that we can get as close as possible to this lower bound as we want. 96

97 Error free (lossless) compression Applications: archiving of medical or business documents where lossy compression is prohibited for legal reasons. Typical compression ratio: 2 to 10 2 operations are involved: 1. Reduce the interpixel redundancies using a mapping or transformation 2. Coding the representation to eliminate coding redundancies Variable Length Coding (VLC) Assigns the shortest possible code words to the most probable gray levels. The input to VLC could be the gray levels of an image or the output of a mapping operation. 97

98 Contour tracing and coding Different approaches for representing the contour of a binary image: 1. Set of boundary points 2. A single boundary point and a set of directions (directional contour tracking) 3. Predictive differential quantization (PDQ) 98

99 PDQ Δ : difference between the starting coordinate of the front contour on adjacent lines Δ : difference between front to back contour lengths (d1-d2) New start: a new contour Merge: old contour ends If Δ is replace by Δ (difference between back contour coordinates of adjacent lines) the code is called double delta coding (DDC). 99

100 Image compression standards The standards have been developed under the supervision of ISO and CCITT. Binary image compression standards The most widely used standards for bilevel image compression are CCITT Group 3 and Group 4. They were originally developed for FAX coding. Group 3: includes two coding schemes: 1. 1-D: coding of each line is performed independently of any other line 2. 2-D: coding of one line is performed using line to line correlation. 100

101 G3 1-D coding: is a run-length coding scheme in which each line is represented as alternative white and black runs from left to right. The first run is always a white run. So, if the first pixel is black, the white run has a length of zero. Runs of different lengths occur with different probabilities, therefore they are coded using VLC. CCITT uses Huffman coding 101

102 G3 The number of possible length of runs is huge and it is not feasible to build a code book that large. The run length rl is expressed as: rl=64*m+t t=0,1,..,63 m=1,2,, 27 To represent rl, we use the corresponding codes for m and t. The code for t are called terminating codes and for m make-up codes. A unique EOL (end of line) is used to terminate each line. 102

103 G3 2-D coding: rows of a facsimile image are heavily correlated. Therefore it would be easier to code the transition points with reference to the previous line. a0: the last pixel known to both encoder and decoder. At the beginning of encoding each line a0 refers to an imaginary white pixel to the left of actual pixel. While it is often a transition pixel it does not have to be. a1: the first transition point to the right of a0. It has an opposite color of a0. a2: the second transition pixel to the right of a0. Its color is opposite of a1. 103

104 G3 b1: the first transition pixel on the line above currently being coded, to the right of a0 whose color is opposite of a0. b2: the first transition pixel to the right of b1 in the line above the current line b1 b2 a0 a1 a2 104

105 G3 If b1 and b2 lie between a0 and a1 (pass mode): no transition until b2. Then a0 moves to b2 and the coding continues. If a1 is detected before b2 If distance between a1 and b1 (number of pixels) is less than or equal to 3, we send the location of a1 with respect to b1, move a0 to a1 and the coding continues (vertical mode) If the distance between a1 and b1 is larger than 3, we go back to 1-D run length coding and send the distance between a0 and a1 and a1 and a2 (horizontal mode) 105

106 Still image compression JPEG: most popular and comprehensive continuous tone, still image compression standard. JPEG defines 3 different coding systems: 1. Baseline coding (lossy, very common) 2. Extended coding, for greater compression, higher precision or progressive reconstruction applications 3. Lossless coding Baseline system (sequential baseline system) Input and output precision is limited to 8 bits. Quantized DCT values are restricted to 11 bits. 106

107 JPEG The image is divided into 8x8 blocks, which are processed from left to right and top to bottom. The 64 pixel values in each block are first level shifted by subtracting 128. The 2-D DCT of the block is then computed and quantized and reordered using the zigzag pattern. The DC coefficient ( first DCT coefficient) is differentially coded relative to the DC coefficient of the previous block, and then Huffman coded. The rest of coefficients are coded using a variable length code that uses the value of the coefficients and number of zeros before the coefficient. 107

108 JPEG Since the number of values that the quantized coefficients can assume is large, a Huffman code for such an alphabet is unmanageable. The values are divided into ranges (categories) and the categories are Huffman coded. The elements in each category is specified by tacking on some extra bits. 108

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