A Binarization Algorithm specialized on Document Images and Photos

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A Binarization Algorithm specialized on Document Images and Photos"

Transcription

1 A Bnarzaton Algorthm specalzed on Document mages and Photos Ergna Kavalleratou Dept. of nformaton and Communcaton Systems Engneerng Unversty of the Aegean Abstract n ths paper, a new method for document mages or photos bnarzaton s presented. The method s smple, fast and robust and approprate for normal as well as for specal cases of documents lke photos, hstorcal documents etc. The proposed method s appled to problematc cases of documents and t s compared to other tradtonal methods. where x and y are the horzontal and vertcal coordnates of the mage, and r can take any value between 0 and whle r= stands for whte colour and r=0 stands for black colour. Our ntenton lays on the transform of the ntermedate gray tones to ether black (r=0) for foreground or whte (r=) for background.. ntroducton The transformaton of greyscale mages to black and whte, s a common problem of last decades. Many methods have been proposed as for mages as for documents mages. However, the ncreased necesstes (automatc hstorcal document processng, dgtal camera photos of documents etc) requre new approaches. One of the older methods n mage bnarzaton s Otsu s [3], based on the varance of pxel ntensty. Bernsen [] calculates local thresholds usng neghbours. Nblack [2] uses local mean and standard devaton. Sauvola [4] presents a method specalzed on document mages that apples two algorthms n order to calculate a dfferent threshold for each pxel. n the next secton, t s gven the descrpton of the algorthm, whle n secton 3 the algorthm s analysed n detal. Our expermental results and a short comparson wth tradtonal bnarzaton methods are descrbed n secton 4. Fnally, our conclusons are provded n secton Algorthm Descrpton As nput, we assume grayscale document mages or photos where the tones of the foreground (characters, graphcs, etc) outrange over the background. As example, consder the hstorcal document of fgure. Our mages are descrbed by the equaton: = r, r [0,], () Fgure : Hstorcal Documents The algorthm s based on the fact that a document mage ncludes very few pxels of useful nformaton (foreground) compared to the sze of the mage (foreground+background). As an ndcaton, n table, t s gven the amount of black pxels n relaton wth all the pxels of the mage concernng the cleaned verson of the mentoned mage n black and whte (shown n fgure 2), after the applcaton of our algorthm. Table : The amount of black pxels n relaton wth all the pxels of the mage. Total sze (pxels) Amount of black pxels Rate (%) The fact s that rarely the amount of black pxels exceeds the 0% of the total pxels n the document. Takng advantage of ths fact, we assume that the average value of the pxel values of a document mage s determned manly by the background even f the document s qute clear. Ths clam s supported from

2 fgure 3, where are depcted the hstogram of the above example. n the same fgure two thresholds, of our method and Otsu s method, as well as the average value n each case are gven. t s obvous that the average value s always on the background sde, consderng ether threshold. 2. Subtracton of the T from all the pxels of the mage. 3. Hstogram equalzaton. 4. Repetton of steps -3 tll the cleanng of the document. 5. Bnarzaton of the fnal mage. n the next secton, we analyze each of the above steps gvng the necessary mathematcal relatons and examples. 3. Algorthm Analyss Fgure 2: The document of fgure after the applcaton of our algorthm Consderng the equaton () the calculaton of the T, threshold used n -th repetton for an MxN document mage, s gven by the formula: x y T = (2) MxN where (x, s the mage at the -th repetton. Keepng n mnd that s stand for background and 0s for foreground the equaton used for the subtracton and provdes the after-subtracton and before-equalzaton mage s s: s = T + ( x,, (3) n each repetton, durng the subtracton, a lot of pxels are moved to the sde of the background and the rest of the pxels are fadng. n fgure 4, the mage that corresponds to the T threshold of the document mage of fgure s shown as well as the mage after the frst subtracton. Fgure 3: The hstogram of the documents of fgure. Thresholds extracted wth the proposed method (--), Otsu s method (- ) and the average value of the pxels ( ). Usng ths fact our method conssts of two procedures that are appled alternately. n the frst part the average colour value of the mage s calculated and then subtracted from the mage, whle n the second part of the algorthm we perform hstogram equalzaton, thus the remanng pxels would expand and take up all of the grayscale tones. The nput of the algorthm s assumed to be grayscale documents lke the one of fgure whle the output wll be black and whte document mages lke the one of fgure 2. Our algorthm conssts of the followng steps:. Calculaton of the average pxel value (T ) of the mage. (a) (b) Fgure 4: a) the mage that corresponds to the T = threshold of the document mage of fgure, b) the mage fg. after the frst subtracton and before the hstogram equalzaton. After the subtracton step, we adjust the ntensty of the mage by usng the hstogram and extendng the values to all the colour range from 0 to. Snce the s (background) shouldn t be changed, and the rest of the

3 pxel values should extend from 0 to. The relaton we use for the equalzaton s: s = E (4) where s s gven by the equaton (3) and E s the mnmum pxel value n the mage s durng -th repetton, just before the hstogram equalzaton. n fgure 5, t s shown the document mage of fg. before and after the frst hstogram equalzaton. The correspondng hstograms are dsplayed below the mages. Please note that the hstograms have been scaled approprately n order to show more detal. The maxmum value s shown on the upper rght corner. Fgure 5: the document mage of fg. before and after the frst hstogram equalzaton and the correspondng hstograms. The whole procedure s repeated the necessary tmes tll the document mage s satsfactorly cleaned. Each repetton removes more stans from the mage. The number of repettons depends on the mage and the ntensty of any exstent stans, crumples, lghtng effects on the mage. Snce n every repetton the mage and the hstogram are changng, t s useful to be able to transform the threshold values nto values of the ntal hstogram, n order to have a clear mage of the progress n our experments. Combnng the equatons (3) and (4) we extract a relaton between the fnal and ntal mage durng a repetton of our algorthm: T = E (5) where s the mage after the -th repetton havng used the correspondng thresholds T and E for the subtracton and equalzaton n the repetton, as t has been descrbed above. Thus, usng the equaton (5) and makng the necessary replacements for n repettons, the correspondng ntal value T o, n the ntal hstogram, of the fnal threshold T f wll be: n n n (6) T = T E E + T E + T 0 f = j = j= = 2 The termnaton of the algorthm, the specfcaton of the necessary repetton tmes, s a problem that occuped us long (fx number of repettons, values of the above mentoned thresholds T and E, as well as the varaton of them or the nter se dfference were concerned as crtera). Fnally, we notced that all the documents had a smlar behavour wth most changes at the frst -3 repettons and very slow modfcaton afterwards. The necessary amount of repettons depends very much on the document. as well as on the requred result, and t never exceeded the 20 th repetton n our experments. However, the process after the frst repettons s very slow. n fgure 6 we show the thresholds on the hstogram of the fgure durng the 4 frst repettons, whle n fgure 7 a detal of the document s presented. Thus, we could say that more than one stage could be accepted. Fnally, after many experments, we conclude that the amount of transformed pxels n each repetton s a more objectve measure. After numerous experments, we suggest as a threshold the frst repetton that the transformed pxels are less than 3 of the document sze. Havng already concluded to the rght fnal stage, we bnarze the mage by turnng all the pxels that are not already whte (value ) to black (value 0) j= Fgure 6: The correspondng thresholds on the hstogram of fg.. n crcle, you can see the result accordng to the suggested threshold 3 of the document sze. j

4 Fgure 7: A detal of the fgure n the ntal stage (top-left) and durng the 4 frst repettons (from left to rght and top to bottom). n rectangle, the suggested threshold result ( th repetton). 4. Expermental Results As mentoned before n our experments we used a set of about 00 document mages and photos n grey scale. Snce, to the best of our knowledge, there s no known database, n order to compare the results we used the methods descrbed n [,3,4]. Some results are shown n fgures 8-0, tryng to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method n typcal cases of document mages and photos. Due to the smplcty of the algorthm, the computatonal cost s very low n comparson to other algorthms approprate for document mages. For example, the computatonal cost for the mages of the fgures, 9 and 0 s 22, 2 and 8 seconds, respectvely. The algorthm has been mplemented n Matlab n Pentum M processor.60 Ghz. 5. Concluson n ths paper we presented a method approprate for the bnarzaton, of document mages and photos. The method makes use of the fact that the pxels that compose the text n an document, usually, do not exceed the 0% of ts sze. Ths allowed us to buld an algorthm that conssts of two successve stages appled alternatvely on the mage. The results have been compared wth other methods and are qute satsfactory. The advantages of our algorthm s: smplcty, snce t doesn t requre any further pre-processng procedure and s based on a smple technque, low computatonal cost due to ts smplcty, and robustness, snce t gves the capablty to the user to succeed the desrable result n grayscale or bnarzed fnal mage. Acknowledgments We would lke to thank professor N.Papamarkos for provdng the algorthms used for the comparson wth other methods n our experments, from hs personal lbrary References [] Bernsen, J."Dynamc thresholdng of grey-level mages", Proc. 8th nternatonal Conference on Pattern Recognton (CPR8), pp , Pars, France, October 986. [2] Nblack, W. An ntroducton to Dgtal mage processng", pp 5-6, Prentce Hall, 986. [3] Otsu, N. A threshold selecton method from gray-level hstograms. EEE Trans. Systems Man Cybernet. pp , 9 (), 979. [4] Sauvola, J., Petkanen, M., Adaptve Document mage Bnarzaton, Pattern Recognton, pp , 33 (2000).

5 (a) (b) (c) Fgure 8: Bnarzaton of the document of fgure by the methods of (a) Otsu s, (b) Bernsen s, (c) Sauvola s. Fgure 9 (from left to rght): orgnal photo, our approach, Bernsen s and Otsu s. Fgure 0 (from left to rght): orgnal photo, our approach and Bernsen s.

A Fast Visual Tracking Algorithm Based on Circle Pixels Matching

A Fast Visual Tracking Algorithm Based on Circle Pixels Matching A Fast Vsual Trackng Algorthm Based on Crcle Pxels Matchng Zhqang Hou hou_zhq@sohu.com Chongzhao Han czhan@mal.xjtu.edu.cn Ln Zheng Abstract: A fast vsual trackng algorthm based on crcle pxels matchng

More information

Content Based Image Retrieval Using 2-D Discrete Wavelet with Texture Feature with Different Classifiers

Content Based Image Retrieval Using 2-D Discrete Wavelet with Texture Feature with Different Classifiers IOSR Journal of Electroncs and Communcaton Engneerng (IOSR-JECE) e-issn: 78-834,p- ISSN: 78-8735.Volume 9, Issue, Ver. IV (Mar - Apr. 04), PP 0-07 Content Based Image Retreval Usng -D Dscrete Wavelet wth

More information

Skew Angle Estimation and Correction of Hand Written, Textual and Large areas of Non-Textual Document Images: A Novel Approach

Skew Angle Estimation and Correction of Hand Written, Textual and Large areas of Non-Textual Document Images: A Novel Approach Angle Estmaton and Correcton of Hand Wrtten, Textual and Large areas of Non-Textual Document Images: A Novel Approach D.R.Ramesh Babu Pyush M Kumat Mahesh D Dhannawat PES Insttute of Technology Research

More information

A Fast Content-Based Multimedia Retrieval Technique Using Compressed Data

A Fast Content-Based Multimedia Retrieval Technique Using Compressed Data A Fast Content-Based Multmeda Retreval Technque Usng Compressed Data Borko Furht and Pornvt Saksobhavvat NSF Multmeda Laboratory Florda Atlantc Unversty, Boca Raton, Florda 3343 ABSTRACT In ths paper,

More information

Learning the Kernel Parameters in Kernel Minimum Distance Classifier

Learning the Kernel Parameters in Kernel Minimum Distance Classifier Learnng the Kernel Parameters n Kernel Mnmum Dstance Classfer Daoqang Zhang 1,, Songcan Chen and Zh-Hua Zhou 1* 1 Natonal Laboratory for Novel Software Technology Nanjng Unversty, Nanjng 193, Chna Department

More information

ESTIMATION OF PROPER PARAMETER VALUES FOR DOCUMENT BINARIZATION

ESTIMATION OF PROPER PARAMETER VALUES FOR DOCUMENT BINARIZATION ESTIMATIO OF PROPER PARAMETER VALUES FOR OCUMET BIARIZATIO E. Badekas and. Papamarkos Image Processng and Multmeda Laboratory epartment of Electrcal & Computer Engneerng emocrtus Unversty of Thrace, 67

More information

Maximum Variance Combined with Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for Infrared Image Segmentation

Maximum Variance Combined with Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for Infrared Image Segmentation Internatonal Conference on Logstcs Engneerng, Management and Computer Scence (LEMCS 5) Maxmum Varance Combned wth Adaptve Genetc Algorthm for Infrared Image Segmentaton Huxuan Fu College of Automaton Harbn

More information

An Image Fusion Approach Based on Segmentation Region

An Image Fusion Approach Based on Segmentation Region Rong Wang, L-Qun Gao, Shu Yang, Yu-Hua Cha, and Yan-Chun Lu An Image Fuson Approach Based On Segmentaton Regon An Image Fuson Approach Based on Segmentaton Regon Rong Wang, L-Qun Gao, Shu Yang 3, Yu-Hua

More information

A Novel Adaptive Descriptor Algorithm for Ternary Pattern Textures

A Novel Adaptive Descriptor Algorithm for Ternary Pattern Textures A Novel Adaptve Descrptor Algorthm for Ternary Pattern Textures Fahuan Hu 1,2, Guopng Lu 1 *, Zengwen Dong 1 1.School of Mechancal & Electrcal Engneerng, Nanchang Unversty, Nanchang, 330031, Chna; 2. School

More information

Tsinghua University at TAC 2009: Summarizing Multi-documents by Information Distance

Tsinghua University at TAC 2009: Summarizing Multi-documents by Information Distance Tsnghua Unversty at TAC 2009: Summarzng Mult-documents by Informaton Dstance Chong Long, Mnle Huang, Xaoyan Zhu State Key Laboratory of Intellgent Technology and Systems, Tsnghua Natonal Laboratory for

More information

A Gradient Difference based Technique for Video Text Detection

A Gradient Difference based Technique for Video Text Detection A Gradent Dfference based Technque for Vdeo Text Detecton Palaahnakote Shvakumara, Trung Quy Phan and Chew Lm Tan School of Computng, Natonal Unversty of Sngapore {shva, phanquyt, tancl }@comp.nus.edu.sg

More information

A Gradient Difference based Technique for Video Text Detection

A Gradient Difference based Technique for Video Text Detection 2009 10th Internatonal Conference on Document Analyss and Recognton A Gradent Dfference based Technque for Vdeo Text Detecton Palaahnakote Shvakumara, Trung Quy Phan and Chew Lm Tan School of Computng,

More information

Real-time Motion Capture System Using One Video Camera Based on Color and Edge Distribution

Real-time Motion Capture System Using One Video Camera Based on Color and Edge Distribution Real-tme Moton Capture System Usng One Vdeo Camera Based on Color and Edge Dstrbuton YOSHIAKI AKAZAWA, YOSHIHIRO OKADA, AND KOICHI NIIJIMA Graduate School of Informaton Scence and Electrcal Engneerng,

More information

Assignment # 2. Farrukh Jabeen Algorithms 510 Assignment #2 Due Date: June 15, 2009.

Assignment # 2. Farrukh Jabeen Algorithms 510 Assignment #2 Due Date: June 15, 2009. Farrukh Jabeen Algorthms 51 Assgnment #2 Due Date: June 15, 29. Assgnment # 2 Chapter 3 Dscrete Fourer Transforms Implement the FFT for the DFT. Descrbed n sectons 3.1 and 3.2. Delverables: 1. Concse descrpton

More information

An efficient method to build panoramic image mosaics

An efficient method to build panoramic image mosaics An effcent method to buld panoramc mage mosacs Pattern Recognton Letters vol. 4 003 Dae-Hyun Km Yong-In Yoon Jong-Soo Cho School of Electrcal Engneerng and Computer Scence Kyungpook Natonal Unv. Abstract

More information

Term Weighting Classification System Using the Chi-square Statistic for the Classification Subtask at NTCIR-6 Patent Retrieval Task

Term Weighting Classification System Using the Chi-square Statistic for the Classification Subtask at NTCIR-6 Patent Retrieval Task Proceedngs of NTCIR-6 Workshop Meetng, May 15-18, 2007, Tokyo, Japan Term Weghtng Classfcaton System Usng the Ch-square Statstc for the Classfcaton Subtask at NTCIR-6 Patent Retreval Task Kotaro Hashmoto

More information

Simulation Based Analysis of FAST TCP using OMNET++

Simulation Based Analysis of FAST TCP using OMNET++ Smulaton Based Analyss of FAST TCP usng OMNET++ Umar ul Hassan 04030038@lums.edu.pk Md Term Report CS678 Topcs n Internet Research Sprng, 2006 Introducton Internet traffc s doublng roughly every 3 months

More information

Pictures at an Exhibition

Pictures at an Exhibition 1 Pctures at an Exhbton Stephane Kwan and Karen Zhu Department of Electrcal Engneerng Stanford Unversty, Stanford, CA 9405 Emal: {skwan1, kyzhu}@stanford.edu Abstract An mage processng algorthm s desgned

More information

Suppression for Luminance Difference of Stereo Image-Pair Based on Improved Histogram Equalization

Suppression for Luminance Difference of Stereo Image-Pair Based on Improved Histogram Equalization Suppresson for Lumnance Dfference of Stereo Image-Par Based on Improved Hstogram Equalzaton Zhao Llng,, Zheng Yuhu 3, Sun Quansen, Xa Deshen School of Computer Scence and Technology, NJUST, Nanjng, Chna.School

More information

Using Fuzzy Logic to Enhance the Large Size Remote Sensing Images

Using Fuzzy Logic to Enhance the Large Size Remote Sensing Images Internatonal Journal of Informaton and Electroncs Engneerng Vol. 5 No. 6 November 015 Usng Fuzzy Logc to Enhance the Large Sze Remote Sensng Images Trung Nguyen Tu Huy Ngo Hoang and Thoa Vu Van Abstract

More information

Parallelism for Nested Loops with Non-uniform and Flow Dependences

Parallelism for Nested Loops with Non-uniform and Flow Dependences Parallelsm for Nested Loops wth Non-unform and Flow Dependences Sam-Jn Jeong Dept. of Informaton & Communcaton Engneerng, Cheonan Unversty, 5, Anseo-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam, 330-80, Korea. seong@cheonan.ac.kr

More information

FEATURE EXTRACTION. Dr. K.Vijayarekha. Associate Dean School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering SASTRA University, Thanjavur

FEATURE EXTRACTION. Dr. K.Vijayarekha. Associate Dean School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering SASTRA University, Thanjavur FEATURE EXTRACTION Dr. K.Vjayarekha Assocate Dean School of Electrcal and Electroncs Engneerng SASTRA Unversty, Thanjavur613 41 Jont Intatve of IITs and IISc Funded by MHRD Page 1 of 8 Table of Contents

More information

Reducing Frame Rate for Object Tracking

Reducing Frame Rate for Object Tracking Reducng Frame Rate for Object Trackng Pavel Korshunov 1 and We Tsang Oo 2 1 Natonal Unversty of Sngapore, Sngapore 11977, pavelkor@comp.nus.edu.sg 2 Natonal Unversty of Sngapore, Sngapore 11977, oowt@comp.nus.edu.sg

More information

R s s f. m y s. SPH3UW Unit 7.3 Spherical Concave Mirrors Page 1 of 12. Notes

R s s f. m y s. SPH3UW Unit 7.3 Spherical Concave Mirrors Page 1 of 12. Notes SPH3UW Unt 7.3 Sphercal Concave Mrrors Page 1 of 1 Notes Physcs Tool box Concave Mrror If the reflectng surface takes place on the nner surface of the sphercal shape so that the centre of the mrror bulges

More information

COMPARING BACKGROUND ELIMINATION APPROACHES FOR PROCESSING OF ANCIENT THAI MANUSCIPTS ON PALM LEAVES

COMPARING BACKGROUND ELIMINATION APPROACHES FOR PROCESSING OF ANCIENT THAI MANUSCIPTS ON PALM LEAVES Proceedngs of the Eghth Internatonal Conference on Machne Learnng and Cybernetcs, aodng, -5 July 9 COMPARING ACKGROUND ELIMINAION APPROACHES FOR PROCESSING OF ANCIEN HAI MANUSCIPS ON PALM LEAVES RAPEEPORN

More information

3D vector computer graphics

3D vector computer graphics 3D vector computer graphcs Paolo Varagnolo: freelance engneer Padova Aprl 2016 Prvate Practce ----------------------------------- 1. Introducton Vector 3D model representaton n computer graphcs requres

More information

Mathematics 256 a course in differential equations for engineering students

Mathematics 256 a course in differential equations for engineering students Mathematcs 56 a course n dfferental equatons for engneerng students Chapter 5. More effcent methods of numercal soluton Euler s method s qute neffcent. Because the error s essentally proportonal to the

More information

An Improved Image Segmentation Algorithm Based on the Otsu Method

An Improved Image Segmentation Algorithm Based on the Otsu Method 3th ACIS Internatonal Conference on Software Engneerng, Artfcal Intellgence, Networkng arallel/dstrbuted Computng An Improved Image Segmentaton Algorthm Based on the Otsu Method Mengxng Huang, enjao Yu,

More information

Hybrid Non-Blind Color Image Watermarking

Hybrid Non-Blind Color Image Watermarking Hybrd Non-Blnd Color Image Watermarkng Ms C.N.Sujatha 1, Dr. P. Satyanarayana 2 1 Assocate Professor, Dept. of ECE, SNIST, Yamnampet, Ghatkesar Hyderabad-501301, Telangana 2 Professor, Dept. of ECE, AITS,

More information

TN348: Openlab Module - Colocalization

TN348: Openlab Module - Colocalization TN348: Openlab Module - Colocalzaton Topc The Colocalzaton module provdes the faclty to vsualze and quantfy colocalzaton between pars of mages. The Colocalzaton wndow contans a prevew of the two mages

More information

Brave New World Pseudocode Reference

Brave New World Pseudocode Reference Brave New World Pseudocode Reference Pseudocode s a way to descrbe how to accomplsh tasks usng basc steps lke those a computer mght perform. In ths week s lab, you'll see how a form of pseudocode can be

More information

SLAM Summer School 2006 Practical 2: SLAM using Monocular Vision

SLAM Summer School 2006 Practical 2: SLAM using Monocular Vision SLAM Summer School 2006 Practcal 2: SLAM usng Monocular Vson Javer Cvera, Unversty of Zaragoza Andrew J. Davson, Imperal College London J.M.M Montel, Unversty of Zaragoza. josemar@unzar.es, jcvera@unzar.es,

More information

Comparison Study of Textural Descriptors for Training Neural Network Classifiers

Comparison Study of Textural Descriptors for Training Neural Network Classifiers Comparson Study of Textural Descrptors for Tranng Neural Network Classfers G.D. MAGOULAS (1) S.A. KARKANIS (1) D.A. KARRAS () and M.N. VRAHATIS (3) (1) Department of Informatcs Unversty of Athens GR-157.84

More information

Load Balancing for Hex-Cell Interconnection Network

Load Balancing for Hex-Cell Interconnection Network Int. J. Communcatons, Network and System Scences,,, - Publshed Onlne Aprl n ScRes. http://www.scrp.org/journal/jcns http://dx.do.org/./jcns.. Load Balancng for Hex-Cell Interconnecton Network Saher Manaseer,

More information

PYTHON IMPLEMENTATION OF VISUAL SECRET SHARING SCHEMES

PYTHON IMPLEMENTATION OF VISUAL SECRET SHARING SCHEMES PYTHON IMPLEMENTATION OF VISUAL SECRET SHARING SCHEMES Ruxandra Olmd Faculty of Mathematcs and Computer Scence, Unversty of Bucharest Emal: ruxandra.olmd@fm.unbuc.ro Abstract Vsual secret sharng schemes

More information

Improvement of Spatial Resolution Using BlockMatching Based Motion Estimation and Frame. Integration

Improvement of Spatial Resolution Using BlockMatching Based Motion Estimation and Frame. Integration Improvement of Spatal Resoluton Usng BlockMatchng Based Moton Estmaton and Frame Integraton Danya Suga and Takayuk Hamamoto Graduate School of Engneerng, Tokyo Unversty of Scence, 6-3-1, Nuku, Katsuska-ku,

More information

Edge Detection in Noisy Images Using the Support Vector Machines

Edge Detection in Noisy Images Using the Support Vector Machines Edge Detecton n Nosy Images Usng the Support Vector Machnes Hlaro Gómez-Moreno, Saturnno Maldonado-Bascón, Francsco López-Ferreras Sgnal Theory and Communcatons Department. Unversty of Alcalá Crta. Madrd-Barcelona

More information

Problem Definitions and Evaluation Criteria for Computational Expensive Optimization

Problem Definitions and Evaluation Criteria for Computational Expensive Optimization Problem efntons and Evaluaton Crtera for Computatonal Expensve Optmzaton B. Lu 1, Q. Chen and Q. Zhang 3, J. J. Lang 4, P. N. Suganthan, B. Y. Qu 6 1 epartment of Computng, Glyndwr Unversty, UK Faclty

More information

Research and Application of Fingerprint Recognition Based on MATLAB

Research and Application of Fingerprint Recognition Based on MATLAB Send Orders for Reprnts to reprnts@benthamscence.ae The Open Automaton and Control Systems Journal, 205, 7, 07-07 Open Access Research and Applcaton of Fngerprnt Recognton Based on MATLAB Nng Lu* Department

More information

NUMERICAL SOLVING OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS BY THE METHOD OF VARIATIONS

NUMERICAL SOLVING OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS BY THE METHOD OF VARIATIONS ARPN Journal of Engneerng and Appled Scences 006-017 Asan Research Publshng Network (ARPN). All rghts reserved. NUMERICAL SOLVING OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS BY THE METHOD OF VARIATIONS Igor Grgoryev, Svetlana

More information

Analysis of Continuous Beams in General

Analysis of Continuous Beams in General Analyss of Contnuous Beams n General Contnuous beams consdered here are prsmatc, rgdly connected to each beam segment and supported at varous ponts along the beam. onts are selected at ponts of support,

More information

Array transposition in CUDA shared memory

Array transposition in CUDA shared memory Array transposton n CUDA shared memory Mke Gles February 19, 2014 Abstract Ths short note s nspred by some code wrtten by Jeremy Appleyard for the transposton of data through shared memory. I had some

More information

UB at GeoCLEF Department of Geography Abstract

UB at GeoCLEF Department of Geography   Abstract UB at GeoCLEF 2006 Mguel E. Ruz (1), Stuart Shapro (2), June Abbas (1), Slva B. Southwck (1) and Davd Mark (3) State Unversty of New York at Buffalo (1) Department of Lbrary and Informaton Studes (2) Department

More information

Load-Balanced Anycast Routing

Load-Balanced Anycast Routing Load-Balanced Anycast Routng Chng-Yu Ln, Jung-Hua Lo, and Sy-Yen Kuo Department of Electrcal Engneerng atonal Tawan Unversty, Tape, Tawan sykuo@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw Abstract For fault-tolerance and load-balance

More information

ANALYSIS OF ADAPTIF LOCAL REGION IMPLEMENTATION ON LOCAL THRESHOLDING METHOD

ANALYSIS OF ADAPTIF LOCAL REGION IMPLEMENTATION ON LOCAL THRESHOLDING METHOD Nusantara Journal of Computers and ts Applcatons ANALYSIS F ADAPTIF LCAL REGIN IMPLEMENTATIN N LCAL THRESHLDING METHD I Gust Agung Socrates Ad Guna 1), Hendra Maulana 2), Agus Zanal Arfn 3) and Dn Adn

More information

Parallel Inverse Halftoning by Look-Up Table (LUT) Partitioning

Parallel Inverse Halftoning by Look-Up Table (LUT) Partitioning Parallel Inverse Halftonng by Look-Up Table (LUT) Parttonng Umar F. Sddq and Sadq M. Sat umar@ccse.kfupm.edu.sa, sadq@kfupm.edu.sa KFUPM Box: Department of Computer Engneerng, Kng Fahd Unversty of Petroleum

More information

Accounting for the Use of Different Length Scale Factors in x, y and z Directions

Accounting for the Use of Different Length Scale Factors in x, y and z Directions 1 Accountng for the Use of Dfferent Length Scale Factors n x, y and z Drectons Taha Soch (taha.soch@kcl.ac.uk) Imagng Scences & Bomedcal Engneerng, Kng s College London, The Rayne Insttute, St Thomas Hosptal,

More information

A PATTERN RECOGNITION APPROACH TO IMAGE SEGMENTATION

A PATTERN RECOGNITION APPROACH TO IMAGE SEGMENTATION 1 THE PUBLISHING HOUSE PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROMANIAN ACADEMY, Seres A, OF THE ROMANIAN ACADEMY Volume 4, Number 2/2003, pp.000-000 A PATTERN RECOGNITION APPROACH TO IMAGE SEGMENTATION Tudor BARBU Insttute

More information

A Clustering Algorithm for Key Frame Extraction Based on Density Peak

A Clustering Algorithm for Key Frame Extraction Based on Density Peak Journal of Computer and Communcatons, 2018, 6, 118-128 http://www.scrp.org/ournal/cc ISSN Onlne: 2327-5227 ISSN Prnt: 2327-5219 A Clusterng Algorthm for Key Frame Extracton Based on Densty Peak Hong Zhao

More information

Classifier Selection Based on Data Complexity Measures *

Classifier Selection Based on Data Complexity Measures * Classfer Selecton Based on Data Complexty Measures * Edth Hernández-Reyes, J.A. Carrasco-Ochoa, and J.Fco. Martínez-Trndad Natonal Insttute for Astrophyscs, Optcs and Electroncs, Lus Enrque Erro No.1 Sta.

More information

A mathematical programming approach to the analysis, design and scheduling of offshore oilfields

A mathematical programming approach to the analysis, design and scheduling of offshore oilfields 17 th European Symposum on Computer Aded Process Engneerng ESCAPE17 V. Plesu and P.S. Agach (Edtors) 2007 Elsever B.V. All rghts reserved. 1 A mathematcal programmng approach to the analyss, desgn and

More information

Distance Calculation from Single Optical Image

Distance Calculation from Single Optical Image 17 Internatonal Conference on Mathematcs, Modellng and Smulaton Technologes and Applcatons (MMSTA 17) ISBN: 978-1-6595-53-8 Dstance Calculaton from Sngle Optcal Image Xao-yng DUAN 1,, Yang-je WEI 1,,*

More information

Local Quaternary Patterns and Feature Local Quaternary Patterns

Local Quaternary Patterns and Feature Local Quaternary Patterns Local Quaternary Patterns and Feature Local Quaternary Patterns Jayu Gu and Chengjun Lu The Department of Computer Scence, New Jersey Insttute of Technology, Newark, NJ 0102, USA Abstract - Ths paper presents

More information

MOTION BLUR ESTIMATION AT CORNERS

MOTION BLUR ESTIMATION AT CORNERS Gacomo Boracch and Vncenzo Caglot Dpartmento d Elettronca e Informazone, Poltecnco d Mlano, Va Ponzo, 34/5-20133 MILANO boracch@elet.polm.t, caglot@elet.polm.t Keywords: Abstract: Pont Spread Functon Parameter

More information

A MOVING MESH APPROACH FOR SIMULATION BUDGET ALLOCATION ON CONTINUOUS DOMAINS

A MOVING MESH APPROACH FOR SIMULATION BUDGET ALLOCATION ON CONTINUOUS DOMAINS Proceedngs of the Wnter Smulaton Conference M E Kuhl, N M Steger, F B Armstrong, and J A Jones, eds A MOVING MESH APPROACH FOR SIMULATION BUDGET ALLOCATION ON CONTINUOUS DOMAINS Mark W Brantley Chun-Hung

More information

An Image Compression Algorithm based on Wavelet Transform and LZW

An Image Compression Algorithm based on Wavelet Transform and LZW An Image Compresson Algorthm based on Wavelet Transform and LZW Png Luo a, Janyong Yu b School of Chongqng Unversty of Posts and Telecommuncatons, Chongqng, 400065, Chna Abstract a cylpng@63.com, b y27769864@sna.cn

More information

Feature Reduction and Selection

Feature Reduction and Selection Feature Reducton and Selecton Dr. Shuang LIANG School of Software Engneerng TongJ Unversty Fall, 2012 Today s Topcs Introducton Problems of Dmensonalty Feature Reducton Statstc methods Prncpal Components

More information

Smoothing Spline ANOVA for variable screening

Smoothing Spline ANOVA for variable screening Smoothng Splne ANOVA for varable screenng a useful tool for metamodels tranng and mult-objectve optmzaton L. Rcco, E. Rgon, A. Turco Outlne RSM Introducton Possble couplng Test case MOO MOO wth Game Theory

More information

Cluster Analysis of Electrical Behavior

Cluster Analysis of Electrical Behavior Journal of Computer and Communcatons, 205, 3, 88-93 Publshed Onlne May 205 n ScRes. http://www.scrp.org/ournal/cc http://dx.do.org/0.4236/cc.205.350 Cluster Analyss of Electrcal Behavor Ln Lu Ln Lu, School

More information

Compiler Design. Spring Register Allocation. Sample Exercises and Solutions. Prof. Pedro C. Diniz

Compiler Design. Spring Register Allocation. Sample Exercises and Solutions. Prof. Pedro C. Diniz Compler Desgn Sprng 2014 Regster Allocaton Sample Exercses and Solutons Prof. Pedro C. Dnz USC / Informaton Scences Insttute 4676 Admralty Way, Sute 1001 Marna del Rey, Calforna 90292 pedro@s.edu Regster

More information

Learning-Based Top-N Selection Query Evaluation over Relational Databases

Learning-Based Top-N Selection Query Evaluation over Relational Databases Learnng-Based Top-N Selecton Query Evaluaton over Relatonal Databases Lang Zhu *, Wey Meng ** * School of Mathematcs and Computer Scence, Hebe Unversty, Baodng, Hebe 071002, Chna, zhu@mal.hbu.edu.cn **

More information

Proper Choice of Data Used for the Estimation of Datum Transformation Parameters

Proper Choice of Data Used for the Estimation of Datum Transformation Parameters Proper Choce of Data Used for the Estmaton of Datum Transformaton Parameters Hakan S. KUTOGLU, Turkey Key words: Coordnate systems; transformaton; estmaton, relablty. SUMMARY Advances n technologes and

More information

Editorial Manager(tm) for International Journal of Pattern Recognition and

Editorial Manager(tm) for International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artfcal Intellgence Edtoral Manager(tm) for Internatonal Journal of Pattern Recognton and Manuscrpt Draft Manuscrpt Number: Ttle: TEXT LOCALIZATION IN COMPLEX COLOR DOCUMENTS Artcle Type: Research Paper

More information

A fast algorithm for color image segmentation

A fast algorithm for color image segmentation Unersty of Wollongong Research Onlne Faculty of Informatcs - Papers (Arche) Faculty of Engneerng and Informaton Scences 006 A fast algorthm for color mage segmentaton L. Dong Unersty of Wollongong, lju@uow.edu.au

More information

User Authentication Based On Behavioral Mouse Dynamics Biometrics

User Authentication Based On Behavioral Mouse Dynamics Biometrics User Authentcaton Based On Behavoral Mouse Dynamcs Bometrcs Chee-Hyung Yoon Danel Donghyun Km Department of Computer Scence Department of Computer Scence Stanford Unversty Stanford Unversty Stanford, CA

More information

ScienceDirect. The Influence of Subpixel Corner Detection to Determine the Camera Displacement

ScienceDirect. The Influence of Subpixel Corner Detection to Determine the Camera Displacement Avalable onlne at www.scencedrect.com ScenceDrect Proceda Engneerng ( ) 8 8 th DAAAM Internatonal Symposum on Intellgent Manufacturng and Automaton, DAAAM The Influence of Subpxel Corner Detecton to Determne

More information

FACE RECOGNITION USING MAP DISCRIMINANT ON YCBCR COLOR SPACE

FACE RECOGNITION USING MAP DISCRIMINANT ON YCBCR COLOR SPACE FAC RCOGNIION USING MAP DISCRIMINAN ON YCBCR COLOR SPAC I Gede Pasek Suta Wjaya lectrcal ngneerng Department, ngneerng Faculty, Mataram Unversty. Jl. Majapaht 62 Mataram, West Nusa enggara, Indonesa. mal:

More information

An Optimal Algorithm for Prufer Codes *

An Optimal Algorithm for Prufer Codes * J. Software Engneerng & Applcatons, 2009, 2: 111-115 do:10.4236/jsea.2009.22016 Publshed Onlne July 2009 (www.scrp.org/journal/jsea) An Optmal Algorthm for Prufer Codes * Xaodong Wang 1, 2, Le Wang 3,

More information

Corner-Based Image Alignment using Pyramid Structure with Gradient Vector Similarity

Corner-Based Image Alignment using Pyramid Structure with Gradient Vector Similarity Journal of Sgnal and Informaton Processng, 013, 4, 114-119 do:10.436/jsp.013.43b00 Publshed Onlne August 013 (http://www.scrp.org/journal/jsp) Corner-Based Image Algnment usng Pyramd Structure wth Gradent

More information

Support Vector Machines

Support Vector Machines /9/207 MIST.6060 Busness Intellgence and Data Mnng What are Support Vector Machnes? Support Vector Machnes Support Vector Machnes (SVMs) are supervsed learnng technques that analyze data and recognze patterns.

More information

Video Object Tracking Based On Extended Active Shape Models With Color Information

Video Object Tracking Based On Extended Active Shape Models With Color Information CGIV'2002: he Frst Frst European Conference Colour on Colour n Graphcs, Imagng, and Vson Vdeo Object rackng Based On Extended Actve Shape Models Wth Color Informaton A. Koschan, S.K. Kang, J.K. Pak, B.

More information

Usage of continuous skeletal image representation for document images dewarping.

Usage of continuous skeletal image representation for document images dewarping. Usage of contnuous skeletal mage representaton for document mages dewarpng. Anton Masalovtch, Leond Mestetsky Moscow State Unversty, Moscow, Russa anton_m@abbyy.com, l.mest@ru.net Abstract In ths paper

More information

Shape-adaptive DCT and Its Application in Region-based Image Coding

Shape-adaptive DCT and Its Application in Region-based Image Coding Internatonal Journal of Sgnal Processng, Image Processng and Pattern Recognton, pp.99-108 http://dx.do.org/10.14257/sp.2014.7.1.10 Shape-adaptve DCT and Its Applcaton n Regon-based Image Codng Yamn Zheng,

More information

Learning-based License Plate Detection on Edge Features

Learning-based License Plate Detection on Edge Features Learnng-based Lcense Plate Detecton on Edge Features Wng Teng Ho, Woo Hen Yap, Yong Haur Tay Computer Vson and Intellgent Systems (CVIS) Group Unverst Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysa wngteng_h@yahoo.com, woohen@yahoo.com,

More information

A fair buffer allocation scheme

A fair buffer allocation scheme A far buffer allocaton scheme Juha Henanen and Kalev Klkk Telecom Fnland P.O. Box 228, SF-330 Tampere, Fnland E-mal: juha.henanen@tele.f Abstract An approprate servce for data traffc n ATM networks requres

More information

The stream cipher MICKEY-128 (version 1) Algorithm specification issue 1.0

The stream cipher MICKEY-128 (version 1) Algorithm specification issue 1.0 The stream cpher MICKEY-128 (verson 1 Algorthm specfcaton ssue 1. Steve Babbage Vodafone Group R&D, Newbury, UK steve.babbage@vodafone.com Matthew Dodd Independent consultant matthew@mdodd.net www.mdodd.net

More information

Available online at Available online at Advanced in Control Engineering and Information Science

Available online at   Available online at   Advanced in Control Engineering and Information Science Avalable onlne at wwwscencedrectcom Avalable onlne at wwwscencedrectcom Proceda Proceda Engneerng Engneerng 00 (2011) 15000 000 (2011) 1642 1646 Proceda Engneerng wwwelsevercom/locate/proceda Advanced

More information

MULTISPECTRAL IMAGES CLASSIFICATION BASED ON KLT AND ATR AUTOMATIC TARGET RECOGNITION

MULTISPECTRAL IMAGES CLASSIFICATION BASED ON KLT AND ATR AUTOMATIC TARGET RECOGNITION MULTISPECTRAL IMAGES CLASSIFICATION BASED ON KLT AND ATR AUTOMATIC TARGET RECOGNITION Paulo Quntlano 1 & Antono Santa-Rosa 1 Federal Polce Department, Brasla, Brazl. E-mals: quntlano.pqs@dpf.gov.br and

More information

Development of an Active Shape Model. Using the Discrete Cosine Transform

Development of an Active Shape Model. Using the Discrete Cosine Transform Development of an Actve Shape Model Usng the Dscrete Cosne Transform Kotaro Yasuda A Thess n The Department of Electrcal and Computer Engneerng Presented n Partal Fulfllment of the Requrements for the

More information

For instance, ; the five basic number-sets are increasingly more n A B & B A A = B (1)

For instance, ; the five basic number-sets are increasingly more n A B & B A A = B (1) Secton 1.2 Subsets and the Boolean operatons on sets If every element of the set A s an element of the set B, we say that A s a subset of B, or that A s contaned n B, or that B contans A, and we wrte A

More information

The Codesign Challenge

The Codesign Challenge ECE 4530 Codesgn Challenge Fall 2007 Hardware/Software Codesgn The Codesgn Challenge Objectves In the codesgn challenge, your task s to accelerate a gven software reference mplementaton as fast as possble.

More information

Multi-view 3D Position Estimation of Sports Players

Multi-view 3D Position Estimation of Sports Players Mult-vew 3D Poston Estmaton of Sports Players Robbe Vos and Wlle Brnk Appled Mathematcs Department of Mathematcal Scences Unversty of Stellenbosch, South Afrca Emal: vosrobbe@gmal.com Abstract The problem

More information

A fault tree analysis strategy using binary decision diagrams

A fault tree analysis strategy using binary decision diagrams Loughborough Unversty Insttutonal Repostory A fault tree analyss strategy usng bnary decson dagrams Ths tem was submtted to Loughborough Unversty's Insttutonal Repostory by the/an author. Addtonal Informaton:

More information

3D Face Reconstruction With Local Feature Refinement. Abstract

3D Face Reconstruction With Local Feature Refinement. Abstract , pp.6-74 http://dx.do.org/0.457/jmue.04.9.8.06 3D Face Reconstructon Wth Local Feature Refnement Rudy Adpranata, Kartka Gunad and Wendy Gunawan 3, formatcs Department, Petra Chrstan Unversty, Surabaya,

More information

Novel Fuzzy logic Based Edge Detection Technique

Novel Fuzzy logic Based Edge Detection Technique Novel Fuzzy logc Based Edge Detecton Technque Aborsade, D.O Department of Electroncs Engneerng, adoke Akntola Unversty of Tech., Ogbomoso. Oyo-state. doaborsade@yahoo.com Abstract Ths paper s based on

More information

Integrated Expression-Invariant Face Recognition with Constrained Optical Flow

Integrated Expression-Invariant Face Recognition with Constrained Optical Flow Integrated Expresson-Invarant Face Recognton wth Constraned Optcal Flow Chao-Kue Hseh, Shang-Hong La 2, and Yung-Chang Chen Department of Electrcal Engneerng, Natonal Tsng Hua Unversty, Tawan 2 Department

More information

Histogram based Evolutionary Dynamic Image Segmentation

Histogram based Evolutionary Dynamic Image Segmentation Hstogram based Evolutonary Dynamc Image Segmentaton Amya Halder Computer Scence & Engneerng Department St. Thomas College of Engneerng & Technology Kolkata, Inda amya_halder@ndatmes.com Arndam Kar and

More information

Problem Set 3 Solutions

Problem Set 3 Solutions Introducton to Algorthms October 4, 2002 Massachusetts Insttute of Technology 6046J/18410J Professors Erk Demane and Shaf Goldwasser Handout 14 Problem Set 3 Solutons (Exercses were not to be turned n,

More information

Related-Mode Attacks on CTR Encryption Mode

Related-Mode Attacks on CTR Encryption Mode Internatonal Journal of Network Securty, Vol.4, No.3, PP.282 287, May 2007 282 Related-Mode Attacks on CTR Encrypton Mode Dayn Wang, Dongda Ln, and Wenlng Wu (Correspondng author: Dayn Wang) Key Laboratory

More information

Decision Strategies for Rating Objects in Knowledge-Shared Research Networks

Decision Strategies for Rating Objects in Knowledge-Shared Research Networks Decson Strateges for Ratng Objects n Knowledge-Shared Research etwors ALEXADRA GRACHAROVA *, HAS-JOACHM ER **, HASSA OUR ELD ** OM SUUROE ***, HARR ARAKSE *** * nsttute of Control and System Research,

More information

CSE 326: Data Structures Quicksort Comparison Sorting Bound

CSE 326: Data Structures Quicksort Comparison Sorting Bound CSE 326: Data Structures Qucksort Comparson Sortng Bound Steve Setz Wnter 2009 Qucksort Qucksort uses a dvde and conquer strategy, but does not requre the O(N) extra space that MergeSort does. Here s the

More information

A Computer Vision System for Automated Container Code Recognition

A Computer Vision System for Automated Container Code Recognition A Computer Vson System for Automated Contaner Code Recognton Hsn-Chen Chen, Chh-Ka Chen, Fu-Yu Hsu, Yu-San Ln, Yu-Te Wu, Yung-Nen Sun * Abstract Contaner code examnaton s an essental step n the contaner

More information

VFH*: Local Obstacle Avoidance with Look-Ahead Verification

VFH*: Local Obstacle Avoidance with Look-Ahead Verification 2000 IEEE Internatonal Conference on Robotcs and Automaton, San Francsco, CA, Aprl 24-28, 2000, pp. 2505-25 VFH*: Local Obstacle Avodance wth Look-Ahead Verfcaton Iwan Ulrch and Johann Borensten The Unversty

More information

Efficient computation of adaptive threshold surfaces for image binarization

Efficient computation of adaptive threshold surfaces for image binarization Pattern Recognton 39 (2006) 89 101 www.elsever.com/locate/patcog Effcent computaton of adaptve threshold surfaces for mage bnarzaton Ilya Blayvas, Alfred Brucksten, Ron Kmmel CS Department, Technon, Hafa

More information

High-Boost Mesh Filtering for 3-D Shape Enhancement

High-Boost Mesh Filtering for 3-D Shape Enhancement Hgh-Boost Mesh Flterng for 3-D Shape Enhancement Hrokazu Yagou Λ Alexander Belyaev y Damng We z Λ y z ; ; Shape Modelng Laboratory, Unversty of Azu, Azu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 Japan y Computer Graphcs Group,

More information

A Statistical Model Selection Strategy Applied to Neural Networks

A Statistical Model Selection Strategy Applied to Neural Networks A Statstcal Model Selecton Strategy Appled to Neural Networks Joaquín Pzarro Elsa Guerrero Pedro L. Galndo joaqun.pzarro@uca.es elsa.guerrero@uca.es pedro.galndo@uca.es Dpto Lenguajes y Sstemas Informátcos

More information

COMPLEX WAVELET TRANSFORM-BASED COLOR INDEXING FOR CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL

COMPLEX WAVELET TRANSFORM-BASED COLOR INDEXING FOR CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL COMPLEX WAVELET TRANSFORM-BASED COLOR INDEXING FOR CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL Nader Safavan and Shohreh Kasae Department of Computer Engneerng Sharf Unversty of Technology Tehran, Iran skasae@sharf.edu

More information

Lecture 5: Multilayer Perceptrons

Lecture 5: Multilayer Perceptrons Lecture 5: Multlayer Perceptrons Roger Grosse 1 Introducton So far, we ve only talked about lnear models: lnear regresson and lnear bnary classfers. We noted that there are functons that can t be represented

More information

On Some Entertaining Applications of the Concept of Set in Computer Science Course

On Some Entertaining Applications of the Concept of Set in Computer Science Course On Some Entertanng Applcatons of the Concept of Set n Computer Scence Course Krasmr Yordzhev *, Hrstna Kostadnova ** * Assocate Professor Krasmr Yordzhev, Ph.D., Faculty of Mathematcs and Natural Scences,

More information

Fast Feature Value Searching for Face Detection

Fast Feature Value Searching for Face Detection Vol., No. 2 Computer and Informaton Scence Fast Feature Value Searchng for Face Detecton Yunyang Yan Department of Computer Engneerng Huayn Insttute of Technology Hua an 22300, Chna E-mal: areyyyke@63.com

More information