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2 Goals Introduce the types of light-material interactions Build a simple reflection model---the Phong model--- that can be used with real time graphics hardware

3 Why we need Illumination and Shading Suppose we build a model of a sphere using many polygons and color it with an assigned color we get: But we want

4 Shading Why does the image of a real sphere look like Light-material interactions cause each point to have a different color or shade Need to consider? Light sources Material properties Location of viewer Surface orientation

5 Real Light Scattering Light strikes A Some scattered Some absorbed Some of scattered light strikes B Some scattered Some absorbed Some of this scattered light strikes A and so on

6 Rendering Equation The infinite scattering and absorption of light can be described by the rendering equation Cannot be solved in general Ray tracing is a special case for perfectly reflecting surface

7 Global Lighting/Rendering Effects shadow translucent surface multiple reflection

8 Local vs. Global Lighting Correct shading requires a global calculation involving all objects and light sources Incompatible with pipeline model which shades each polygon independently (local lighting) However, in computer graphics, especially real time graphics, we are happy if things look right Many techniques for approximating global effects

9 Step 1: Light Sources General light sources are difficult to work with because we must integrate light coming from all points on the source

10 Light Source Simplifications Point source Model with position and color Directional (Distant) source = infinite distance away (parallel) Ambient light Same amount of light everywhere in scene Models contribution of many sources and reflecting surfaces

11 Step 2: Light-Material Interactions Light that strikes an object is partially absorbed and partially scattered (reflected) The wavelength and amount reflected determines the color and brightness of the object A surface appears red under white light because the red component of the light is reflected and the rest is absorbed The reflected light is scattered in a manner that depends on the smoothness and orientation of the surface

12 Surface Properties - Smoothness The smoother a surface, the more reflected light is concentrated in the direction a perfect mirror would reflected the light A very rough surface scatters light in all directions smooth surface rough surface

13 Phong Illumination Model A simple model that can be computed rapidly has three components Diffuse evenly distr. (rough surface) Specular mirror (smooth surface) Ambient global light Requires four vectors To source To viewer Normal Perfect reflector

14 Phong Illum Modeling Light Sources Each light source diffuse specular ambient Separate red, green and blue components Hence, 9 coefficients for each point source L dr, L dg, L db, L sr, L sg, L sb, L ar, L ag, L ab

15 Phong Illumination Material Properties Material properties determine how much light is absorbed and how much reflected and in which directions Material property for each wavelength R dr, R dg, R db, R sr, R sg, R sb, R ar, R ag, R ab

16 Phong Illumination Equation Total red intensity I r = R ira L ira + R ird L ird + R irs L irs i Intensity of red ambient light (or how much red is coming in) reflectivity of red ambient material (or how much red is going back out)

17 Ambient Reflection All the other light Intensity is the same at all points on surface Not all light is reflected some is absorbed R = k a a ambient coefficient I = k L (for each r, g, b) 0 < k < 1 a a a

18 Diffuse Surfaces In a perfectly diffuse reflector (Lambertian Surface), light is scattered equally in all directions appears same to all viewers!! Amount of light reflected is proportional to the vertical (normal) component of incoming light

19 Diffuse Surface Amount of light energy that falls on a surface area element (and is reflected) is proportional to the cosine of angle of incidence of the light R ~cos θ i cos θ i = l n if vectors normalized There are also three coefficients, k r, k b, k g that show how much of each color component is reflected vs. absorbed I = k ( l n) L d d d l θ n

20 Specular Surfaces Most surfaces are neither ideal diffusers nor perfectly specular (ideal refectors) Smooth surfaces show specular highlights due to incoming light being reflected in directions concentrated close to the direction of a perfect reflection specular highlight

21 Modeling Specular Reflections Phong proposed using a term that dropped off as the angle between the viewer and the ideal reflection increased I s = k s L s cos α φ α ( v r) reflected shininess coef intensity incoming intensity reflectivity coef φ

22 Shininess Coefficient Values of α between 100 and 200 correspond to metals Values between 5 and 10 give surface that look like plastic cos α φ -90 φ 90

23 Computing Reflection Vector, r Normal is determined by local orientation Angle of incidence = angle of reflection The three vectors must be coplanar r = 2 (l n ) n - l?

24 Modified Phong Model The specular term in the Phong model is problematic because it requires the calculation of a new reflection vector and view vector for each vertex Blinn suggested an approximation using the halfway vector that is more efficient

25 The Halfway Vector H is normalized vector halfway between L and V Use it s relationship to N to approx dot(v,r) Highlight occurs when H is near N Note Beta = ½ alpha, so need a new exponent H = L +V L +V Replace (V R) α β α with (N H ) p

26 Putting it all together For each light source and each color component, the Phong model can be written (without the distance terms) as I =k d L d l n + k s L s (v r ) α + k a L a For each color component we add contributions from all sources

27 Example Only differences in these teapots are the parameters in the Phong model

28 Lighting Rules of Thumb Set light s ambient term to 0 Set light s diffuse and specular components to full color of the light (typically white light) Set each material s diffuse and ambient to full color of the object Set material s specular to some amount of white

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