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1 Why we need shading? Suppose we build a model of a sphere using many polygons and color it with glcolor. We get something like But we want Light-material interactions cause each point to have a different color or shade Need to consider Light sources Material properties Location of viewer Surface orientation

2 Scattering Light strikes A Some scattered Some absorbed Some of scattered light strikes B Some scattered Some absorbed Some of this scattered light strikes A and so on...

3 Global Effects Correct shading requires a global calculation involving all objects and light sources Incompatible with pipeline model which shades each polygon independently (local rendering) shadow translucent surface multiple reflection

4 Simple Light Sources Point source Model with position and color Distant source = infinite distance away (parallel) Spotlight Restrict light from ideal point source Ambient light Same amount of light everywhere in scene Can model contribution of many sources and reflecting surfaces

5 Surface Types The smoother a surface, the more reflected light is concentrated in the direction a perfect mirror would reflect the light A very rough surface scatters light in all directions smooth surface rough surface

6 Phong Shading Model Has three components Diffuse Specular Ambient Uses four vectors To light source (I) To viewer/camera (v) Normal (n) Perfect reflector (r)

7 Ideal Reflector Normal is determined by local orientation Angle of incidence = angle of reflection The three vectors must be co-planar r = 2 (l n ) n - l

8 Lambertian Surface Perfectly diffuse reflector Light scattered equally in all directions Amount of light reflected is proportional to the vertical component of incoming light reflected light ~cos q i cos q i = l n if vectors normalized There are also three coefficients, k r, k b, k g that show how much of each R G B color component is reflected

9 Specular Surfaces Most surfaces are neither ideal diffusers (Lambertian) nor perfectly specular (ideal reflectors) Smooth surfaces show specular highlights due to incoming light being reflected in directions concentrated close to the direction of a perfect reflection specular highlight

10 Modeling Specular Relections Phong reflection I r ~ k s I cos a f reflected intensity absorption coef shininess coef incoming intensity f

11 The Shininess Coefficient Values of a between 100 and 200 correspond to metals Values between 5 and 10 give surface that look like plastic cos a f -90 f 90

12 Ambient Light Ambient light is the result of multiple interactions between (large) light sources and the objects in the environment Amount and color depend on both the color of the light(s) and the material properties of the object Add k a I a to diffuse and specular terms reflection coef intensity of ambient light

13 Light Sources In the Phong Model, we add the results from each light source Each light source has separate diffuse, specular, and ambient terms Separate red, green and blue components Hence, 9 coefficients for each point source I dr, I dg, I db, I sr, I sg, I sb, I ar, I ag, I ab

14 Material Properties Material properties match light source properties Nine absorbtion coefficients k dr, k dg, k db, k sr, k sg, k sb, k ar, k ag, k ab Shininess coefficient a

15 Adding up the Components For each light source and each color component, the Phong model can be written as I =k d I d l n + k s I s (v r ) a + k a I a For each color component we add contributions from all sources

16 Modified Phong Model The specular term (v r ) in the Phong model is problematic because it requires the calculation of a new reflection vector r and view vector v for each vertex Blinn suggested an approximation using the halfway vector that is more efficient

17 The Halfway Vector h is normalized vector halfway between l and v h = ( l + v )/ l + v

18 Using the halfway angle Replace (v r ) a by (n h ) b b is chosen to match shineness Note that halway angle is half of angle between r and v if vectors are coplanar Resulting model is known as the modified Phong or Blinn lighting model Specified in OpenGL standard

19 Only differences in these teapots are the parameters in the modified Phong model glutsolidteapot()

20 Computation of Vectors l and v are specified in the application Can compute r from l and n Problem is determining n r = 2 (l n ) n - l How we determine n differs depending on underlying representation of surface OpenGL leaves determination of normal to application

21 Plane Normals Equation of plane: ax+by+cz+d = 0 We know that plane is determined by three points p 0, p 1, p 2 or normal n and p 0 Normal can be obtained by n = (p 2 -p 0 ) (p 1 -p 0 )

22 Steps in OpenGL shading 1. Enable shading and select model 2. Specify normals 3. Specify material properties 4. Specify light sources

23 Normals In OpenGL the normal vector is part of the state Set by glnormal*() glnormal3f(x, y, z); glnormal3fv(p); Usually we want to set the normal to have unit length so cosine calculations are correct Length can be affected by transformations Note that scaling does not preserved length glenable(gl_normalize) allows for autonormalization at a performance penalty

24 Enabling Shading Shading calculations are enabled by glenable(gl_lighting) Once lighting is enabled, glcolor() ignored Must enable each light source individually glenable(gl_lighti) i=0,1.. Can choose light model parameters gllightmodeli(parameter, GL_TRUE) GL_LIGHT_MODEL_LOCAL_VIEWER do not use simplifying distant viewer assumption in calculation GL_LIGHT_MODEL_TWO_SIDED shades both sides of polygons independently

25 Defining a Point Light Source For each light source, we can set an RGBA for the diffuse, specular, and ambient components, and for the position GL float diffuse0[]={1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0}; GL float ambient0[]={1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0}; GL float specular0[]={1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0}; Glfloat light0_pos[]={1.0, 2.0, 3,0, 1.0}; glenable(gl_lighting); glenable(gl_light0); gllightv(gl_light0, GL_POSITION, light0_pos); gllightv(gl_light0, GL_AMBIENT, ambient0); gllightv(gl_light0, GL_DIFFUSE, diffuse0); gllightv(gl_light0, GL_SPECULAR, specular0);

26 Distance and Direction The source colors are specified in RGBA The position is given in homogeneous coordinates If w =1.0, we are specifying a finite location If w =0.0, we are specifying a parallel source with the given direction vector

27 Spotlights Use gllightv to set Direction GL_SPOT_DIRECTION Cutoff GL_SPOT_CUTOFF Attenuation GL_SPOT_EXPONENT Proportional to cos a f -q f q

28 Global Ambient Light Ambient light depends on color of light sources A red light in a white room will cause a red ambient term that disappears when the light is turned off OpenGL also allows a global ambient term that is often helpful for testing gllightmodelfv(gl_light_model_ambient, global_ambient)

29 Moving Light Sources Light sources are geometric objects whose positions or directions are affected by the model-view matrix Depending on where we place the position (direction) setting function, we can Move the light source(s) with the object(s) Fix the object(s) and move the light source(s) Fix the light source(s) and move the object(s) Move the light source(s) and object(s) independently

30 Material Properties Material properties are also part of the OpenGL state and match the terms in the modified Phong model Set by glmaterialv() GLfloat ambient[] = {0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0}; GLfloat diffuse[] = {1.0, 0.8, 0.0, 1.0}; GLfloat specular[] = {1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0}; GLfloat shine = glmaterialf(gl_front, GL_AMBIENT, ambient); glmaterialf(gl_front, GL_DIFFUSE, diffuse); glmaterialf(gl_front, GL_SPECULAR, specular); glmaterialf(gl_front, GL_SHININESS, shine);

31 Front and Back Faces The default is shade only front faces which works correctly for convex objects If we set two sided lighting, OpenGL will shade both sides of a surface Each side can have its own properties which are set by using GL_FRONT, GL_BACK, or GL_FRONT_AND_BACK in glmaterialf back faces not visible back faces visible

32 Transparency Material properties are specified as RGBA values The A value can be used to make the surface translucent The default is that all surfaces are opaque regardless of A

33 Polygonal Shading Shading calculations are done for each vertex Vertex colors become vertex shades By default, vertex shades are interpolated across the polygon glshademodel(gl_smooth); If we use glshademodel(gl_flat); the color at the first vertex will determine the shade of the whole polygon

34 Polygon Normals Polygons have a single normal Shades at the vertices as computed by the Phong model can be almost same Identical for a distant viewer (default) or if there is no specular component Consider model of sphere Want different normals at each vertex even though this concept is not quite correct mathematically

35 Smooth Shading We can set a new normal at each vertex Easy for sphere model If centered at origin n = p Now smooth shading works

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