Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 1. Teaching GL. Dave Shreiner Director, Graphics and GPU Computing, ARM 1 December 2012

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1 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 1 Teaching GL Dave Shreiner Director, Graphics and GPU Computing, ARM 1 December 2012

2 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 2 Agenda Overview of OpenGL family of APIs Comparison of rendering pipelines Debugging the most common OpenGL usage errors

3 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 3 The OpenGL Family OpenGL - The cross-platform standard for 3D Graphics OpenGL ES - The standard for embedded 3D Graphics WebGL - Bringing interactive 3D graphics to the Web through a JavaScript interface OpenGL SC - Verified 3D graphics API for safety critical applications - significantly different pipeline than the others - (not discussed in this session)

4 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 4 The Fundamental Rendering Pipeline Geometric Data (positions, colors, texture coordinates, etc.) Vertex Shading Rasterizer Fragment Shading Pixel Data (textures, etc.) This is the pipeline that OpenGL ES and WebGL expose. OpenGL extends the pipeline.

5 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 5 The OpenGL 4.3 Rendering Pipeline Geometric Data (positions, colors, texture coordinates, etc.) Vertex Shading Tessellation Shading Geometry Shading Pixel Data (textures, etc.) Compute Shading Rasterizer Fragment Shading

6 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 6 A Few Basics Will Go a Long Way All of the APIs are shader based - they use variants of the OpenGL Shading Language GLSL - up porting (from ES or WebGL) to OpenGL shouldn t require any work - down porting may require a few changes Always storing you data in buffer objects will guarantee portability and performance - there are a few differences that you ll need to keep in mind You ll also need to know a little linear algebra Now, to introduce a few introductory concepts

7 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 7 Representing Geometric Objects Geometric objects in OpenGL are represented using vertices A vertex is a collection of generic attributes - positional coordinates - colors - texture coordinates - any other data associated with that point in space Positions are stored as 4-dimensional homogeneous coordinates Vertex data must be stored in vertex buffer objects (VBOs) VBOs must be stored in vertex array objects (VAOs) (OpenGL only) x y z w

8 How Data Flows through GLSL Shaders attributes (in) are the inputs into vertex shaders varyings (out) outputs of vertex shaders and inputs into fragment shaders uniforms are constants available to any shader stage uniform API attribute GLSL Keyword varying OpenGL in out ES / WebGL attribute varying For OpenGL, all shader stages use in for all inputs into a shader out for all outputs from a shader 8 Vertex Shader Fragment Shader attribute varying fragments Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 8

9 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 9 Anatomy of a Simple Vertex Shader (OpenGL version) in vec4 vposition; in vec4 vcolor; out vec4 color; void main() { color = vcolor; gl_position = vertex; }

10 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 10 Anatomy of a Simple Vertex Shader (ES/WebGL version) attribute vec4 vposition; attribute vec4 vcolor; varying vec4 color; void main() { color = vcolor; gl_position = vertex; }

11 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 11 Anatomy of a Simple Fragment Shader (OpenGL version) in vec4 vcolor; out vec4 color; void main() { color = vcolor; }

12 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 12 Anatomy of a Simple Fragment Shader (ES/WebGL version) varying vec4 color; void main() { gl_fragcolor = color; }

13 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 13 Getting Your Shaders into OpenGL Shaders need to be compiled and linked to form an executable shader program OpenGL provides the compiler and linker - you access them by making function calls to the API A program must contain - one vertex shader - one fragment shader - other shader stages are optional (OpenGL only) Create Program Create Shader Load Shader Source Compile Shader Attach Shader to Program Link Program glcreateprogram() glcreateshader() glshadersource() glcompileshader() glattachshader() gllinkprogram() These steps need to be repeated for each type of shader in the shader program Use Program gluseprogram()

14 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 14 OpenGL Shader Plumbing You need to make several connections to get data into the pipeline - only need to do this attributes varyings take care of themselves vposition[0] in vec4 vposition; in vec4 vcolor; out vec4 color; void main() { gl_position = vposition; color = vcolor; } Shader Compilation Variable Name Attribute Index vposition 12 vcolor 2 vcolor[0] vposition[1] vcolor[1] vposition[2] vcolor[2] vposition[3] vcolor[3]

15 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 15 OpenGL Shader Plumbing You need to make several connections to get data into the pipeline - only need to do this attributes varyings take care of themselves vposition[0] in vec4 vposition; in vec4 vcolor; out vec4 color; void main() { gl_position = vposition; color = vcolor; } glgetattriblocation vcolor[0] vposition[1] vcolor[1] vposition[2] vcolor[2] vposition[3] vcolor[3] Variable Name Attribute Index vposition 12 vcolor 2

16 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 16 OpenGL Shader Plumbing You need to make several connections to get data into the pipeline - only need to do this attributes varyings take care of themselves vposition[0] in vec4 vposition; in vec4 vcolor; out vec4 color; void main() { gl_position = vposition; color = vcolor; } glvertexattribpointer vcolor[0] vposition[1] vcolor[1] vposition[2] vcolor[2] vposition[3] vcolor[3] Variable Name Attribute Index vposition 12 vcolor 2

17 Debugging the Most Common Problems Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 17

18 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 18 The Bind-to-Edit Model OpenGL uses objects for storing data - it s loosely modeled on object-oriented programming, but not quite Objects are implicitly specified by a binding operation - glbind*() calls Objects are usually bound twice: 1. object creation and initialization 2. specification as a data source for OpenGL rendering This most often causes problems for novice programmers - they forget the second binding (to use the data), or - they re bound to the wrong object

19 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 19 Where are my objects? There are many steps that are required to have geometry show in a window The following must all occur correctly: 1. specifying data into vertex arrays 2. compiling and linking shaders 3. associating vertex attributes with shader variables 4. specifying the viewport 5. loading uniform variables for shader use 6. transforming and projecting geometry into the viewport 7. passing the transformed vertices out of the vertex shader Where should you start looking?

20 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 20 Verifying Your Data s Getting Into OpenGL You can use Normalized Device Coordinates (NDCs) to make sure data s flowing correctly - x and y need to be between -1.0 and z needs to be between 0.0 and 1.0 Verify using very simple vertex and fragment shaders - often called a pass-thru shader in vec4 vpos; void main() { gl_position = vpos; } If your test geometry shows up, then you know: - data is correctly specified to OpenGL - attributes are correctly specified and enabled - shaders compiled and linked successfully - viewport is correctly specified out vec4 color; void main() { color = vec4(1); }

21 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 21 OpenGL Matrices for C Programmers Matrices in OpenGL are column-major - this is the exact opposite of how C programmers think There are many places were a matrix s transpose can be introduced - in the application (most straightforward) - when specifying the matrix as a uniform gluniformmatrix(, GL_TRUE, ); - in the shader - column_major qualifier in GLSL - transpose() method in GLSL é ê êê M = ê ê ë m 0 m 4 m 8 m 12 m 1 m 5 m 9 m 13 m 2 m 6 m 10 m 14 m 3 m 7 m 11 m 15 ù ú úú ú ú û

22 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 22 Matrix Multiplication Is Not Commutative Vertices are usually transformed by 4 4 matrices - modeling and viewing transformations - projection transformations Vertices should be multiplied on right of a matrix v' = Mv Matrices should be accumulated on the right as well C(BA)

23 Where Are My Textures? Loading an image to use as a texture in OpenGL is easy - use the glteximage*d call - loads a single texture level - levels are fundamental to a technique called mipmapping Sampling controls how colors are retrieved from a texture map - including whether mipmaps are to be used However, OpenGL s default sampling mode require mipmaps Three potential solutions: - change the sampling mode: gltexparameteri(, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR ); - load more mipmap levels - automatically build mipmaps: glgeneratemipmaps() Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 23

24 Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 24 Why Do My Textures Looked Skewed? glteximage2d transfers pixels form an application s memory into OpenGL - various parameters are used to control which addresses are read from All of those parameters are controlled by the glpixelstrore function The default mode is to assume every pixel starts on a four-byte boundary - makes sense for RGBA 8-bit per component images - but, a lot of images are RGB only (and have a three-byte stride) Adjust the GL_UNPACK_ALIGNMENT to 1 - default is 4-1 specifies byte alignment

25 Thanks! Copyright Khronos Group 2012 Page 25

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