# Image-Based Lighting. Inserting Synthetic Objects

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1 Image-Based Lighting : Rendering and Image Processing Alexei Efros with a lot of slides donated by Paul Debevec Inserting Synthetic Objects Why does this look so bad? Wrong camera orientation Wrong lighting No shadows 1

2 Solutions Wrong Camera Orientation Estimate correct camera orientation and renender object Use corresponding points to warp the object/scene Only works for small warps and/or mostly planar objects Lighting & Shadows Estimate (eyeball) all the light sources in the scene and simulate it in your virtual rendering Now can use shadow matting to put in shadows But what happens if lighting is complex? Extended light sources, mutual illumination, etc. Environment Maps Simple solution for shiny objects Models complex lighting as a panoramic image i.e. amount of radiance coming in from each direction 2

3 Environment Mapping Reflected ray: r=2(n v)n-v projector function converts reflection vector (x, y, z) to texture image (u, v) viewer n v r reflective surface environment texture image Texture is transferred in the direction of the reflected ray from the environment map onto the object What is in the map? What approximations are made? The map should contain a view of the world with the point of interest on the object as the eye We can t store a separate map for each point, so one map is used with the eye at the center of the object Introduces distortions in the reflection, but the eye doesn t notice Distortions are minimized for a small object in a large room The object will not reflect itself! 3

4 Environment Maps The environment map may take one of several forms: Cubic mapping Spherical mapping other Describes the shape of the surface on which the map resides Determines how the map is generated and how it is indexed Cubic Mapping The map resides on the surfaces of a cube around the object Typically, align the faces of the cube with the coordinate axes To generate the map: For each face of the cube, render the world from the center of the object with the cube face as the image plane Rendering can be arbitrarily complex (it s off-line) To use the map: Index the R ray into the correct cube face Compute texture coordinates 4

5 Cubic Map Example Sphere Mapping Map lives on a sphere To generate the map: Render a spherical panorama from the designed center point To use the map: Use the orientation of the R ray to index directly into the sphere 5

6 Example What about real scenes? from Terminator 2 6

7 Real environment maps We can use photographs to capture environment maps The first use of panoramic mosaics How do we deal with light sources? Sun, lights, etc? They are much much brighter than the rest of the enviarnment User High Dynamic Range photography, of course! Several ways to acquire environment maps: Stitching mosaics Fisheye lens Mirrored Balls Stitching HDR mosaics 7

8 Scanning Panoramic Cameras Pros: very high res (10K x 7K+) Full sphere in one scan no stitching Good dynamic range, some are HDR Issues: More expensive Scans take a while Companies: Panoscan, Sphereon See also 8

9 Fisheye Images 9

10 Mirrored Sphere 10

11 Sources of Mirrored Balls 2-inch chrome balls ~ \$20 ea. McMaster-Carr Supply Company inch large gazing balls Baker s Lawn Ornaments Hollow Spheres, 2in 4in Dube Juggling Equipment FAQ on 11

12 0.34 => 59% Reflective Calibrating Mirrored Sphere Reflectivity 0.58 Real-World HDR Lighting Environments Funston Beach Eucalyptus Grove Uffizi Gallery Grace Cathedral Lighting Environments from the Light Probe Image Gallery: 12

13 Acquiring the Light Probe Assembling the Light Probe 13

14 Not just shiny We have captured a true radiance map We can treat it as an extended (e.g spherical) light source Can use Global Illumination to simulate light transport in the scene So, all objects (not just shiny) can be lighted What s the limitation? Illumination Results 14

15 Comparison: Radiance map versus single image Putting it all together Synthetic Objects + Real light! 15

16 CG Objects Illuminated by a Traditional CG Light Source Illuminating Objects using Measurements of Real Light Object Light Environment assigned glow material property in Greg Ward s RADIANCE system. 16

17 Paul Debevec. A Tutorial on Image-Based Lighting. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Jan/Feb Rendering with Natural Light SIGGRAPH 98 Electronic Theater 17

18 RNL Environment mapped onto interior of large cube MOVIE! 18

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