# The 7d plenoptic function, indexing all light.

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1 Previous Lecture The 7d plenoptic function, indexing all light. Lightfields: a 4d (not 5d!) data structure which captures all outgoing light from a region and permits reconstruction of arbitrary synthetic viewpoints. Can be built into a modern camera. Capturing and recreating visual content involves a combination of geometric and image-based methods. Lytro Camera

2 Image-Based Lighting Eirik Holmøyvik Slides from Alexei Efros and Paul Debevec cs129: Computational Photography James Hays, Brown, Fall 2012

3 Inserting Synthetic Objects Why does this look so bad? Wrong orientation Wrong lighting No shadows

4 Solutions Wrong Camera Orientation Estimate correct camera orientation and render object Requires camera calibration to do it right Lighting & Shadows Estimate (eyeball) all the light sources in the scene and simulate it in your virtual rendering But what happens if lighting is complex? Extended light sources, mutual illumination, etc.

5 Environment Maps Simple solution for shiny objects Models complex lighting as a panoramic image i.e. amount of radiance coming in from each direction A plenoptic function!!!

6 Environment Mapping Reflected ray: r=2(n v)n-v projector function converts reflection vector to texture image (u, v) viewer n v r reflective surface environment texture image Texture is transferred in the direction of the reflected ray from the environment map onto the object What is in the map?

7 What approximations are made? The map should contain a view of the world with the point of interest on the object as the Center of Projection We can t store a separate map for each point, so one map is used with the COP at the center of the object Introduces distortions in the reflection, but we usually don t notice Distortions are minimized for a small object in a large room The object will not reflect itself!

8 Environment Maps The environment map may take various forms: Cubic mapping Spherical mapping other Describes the shape of the surface on which the map resides Determines how the map is generated and how it is indexed

9 Cubic Mapping The map resides on the surfaces of a cube around the object Typically, align the faces of the cube with the coordinate axes To generate the map: For each face of the cube, render the world from the center of the object with the cube face as the image plane Rendering can be arbitrarily complex (it s off-line) To use the map: Index the R ray into the correct cube face Compute texture coordinates

10 Cubic Map Example

11 Sphere Mapping Map lives on a sphere To generate the map: Render a spherical panorama from the designed center point To use the map: Use the orientation of the R ray to index directly into the sphere

12 Example

13 What about real scenes? From Flight of the Navigator

14 What about real scenes? from Terminator 2

15 Real environment maps We can use photographs to capture environment maps How do we deal with light sources? Sun, lights, etc? They are much much brighter than the rest of the enviarnment User High Dynamic Range photography, of course! Several ways to acquire environment maps: Stitching mosaics Fisheye lens Mirrored Balls

16 Stitching HDR mosaics

17 Scanning Panoramic Cameras Pros: very high res (10K x 7K+) Full sphere in one scan no stitching Good dynamic range, some are HDR Issues: More expensive Scans take a while Companies: Panoscan, Sphereon

18 Fisheye Images

19 Mirrored Sphere

20

21

22 Sources of Mirrored Balls 2-inch chrome balls ~ \$20 ea. e.g. McMaster-Carr Supply Company inch large gazing balls Hollow Spheres, 2in 4in e.g. Dube Juggling Equipment FAQ on RShop/main-pages/tutorials.html

23 0.34 => 59% Reflective Calibrating Mirrored Sphere Reflectivity 0.58

24 Real-World HDR Lighting Environments Funston Beach Eucalyptus Grove Uffizi Gallery Grace Cathedral Lighting Environments from the Light Probe Image Gallery:

25 Acquiring the Light Probe

26 Assembling the Light Probe

27 Not just shiny We have captured a true radiance map We can treat it as an extended (e.g spherical) light source Can use Global Illumination to simulate light transport in the scene So, all objects (not just shiny) can be lighted What s the limitation?

28 Illumination Results

29 Comparison: Radiance map versus single image

30 Putting it all together Synthetic Objects + Real light!

31 CG Objects Illuminated by a Traditional CG Light Source

32 Paul Debevec. A Tutorial on Image-Based Lighting. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Jan/Feb 2002.

33 Rendering with Natural Light SIGGRAPH 98 Electronic Theater

34 RNL Environment mapped onto interior of large cube

35 MOVIE!

36 Illuminating a Small Scene

37

38 We can now illuminate synthetic objects with real light. How do we add synthetic objects to a real scene?

39 Real Scene Example Goal: place synthetic objects on table

40 Light Probe / Calibration Grid

41 Modeling the Scene light-based model real scene

42 The Light-Based Room Model

43 Modeling the Scene light-based model synthetic objects local scene real scene

44 The Lighting Computation distant scene (light-based, unknown BRDF) synthetic objects (known BRDF) local scene (estimated BRDF)

45 Rendering into the Scene Background Plate

46 Rendering into the Scene Objects and Local Scene matched to Scene

47 Differential Rendering Local scene w/o objects, illuminated by model

48 Differential Rendering (2) Difference in local scene - =

49 Differential Rendering Final Result

50 IMAGE-BASED LIGHTING IN FIAT LUX Paul Debevec, Tim Hawkins, Westley Sarokin, H. P. Duiker, Christine Cheng, Tal Garfinkel, Jenny Huang SIGGRAPH 99 Electronic Theater

51

52 HDR Image Series 2 sec 1/4 sec 1/30 sec 1/250 sec 1/2000 sec 1/8000 sec

53 Stp1 Panorama

54 Assembled Panorama

55 Light Probe Images

56 Capturing a Spatially-Varying Lighting Environment

57 The Movie

58 Simulating the Glare in the Human Eye Greg Spencer, Peter Shirley, Kurt Zimmerman, and Donald Greenberg. Physically-based glare effects for digital images. SIGGRAPH 95.

59 Scattering in the eye What s the scattering model?

60 HDR Image

61 Gaussian Blur, LDR information Only

62 Gaussian Blur, Full HDR Information

63 Full HDR Disc Blur

64 Frame Postprocessing in Rendering with Natural Light

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