COMP 465: Data Mining Recommender Systems

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1 //0 movies COMP 6: Data Mining Recommender Systems Slides Adapted From: (Mining Massive Datasets) movies Compare predictions with known ratings (test set T)????? Test Data Set Root-mean-square error (RMSE) r xi r (x,i) T xi N where N = T r xi is predicted rating r xi is the actual rating of x on i

2 //0 Narrow focus on accuracy sometimes misses the point Prediction Diversity Prediction Context Order of predictions In practice, we care only to predict high ratings: RMSE might penalize a method that does well for high ratings and badly for others Alterative: precision at top k Percentage of predictions in the user s top k withheld ratings 6 Training data 00 million ratings, 80,000, 7,770 movies 6 years of data: Test data Last few ratings of each user ( million) Evaluation criterion: Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = rxi r R (i,x) R xi Netflix s system RMSE: 0 Competition,700+ teams $ million prize for 0% improvement on Netflix Matrix R 7,700 movies 80,

3 //0 Matrix R 7,700 movies Training Data Set?? RMSE = R 80,000??? (i,x) R r,6 Test Data Set rxi r xi Predicted rating True rating of user x on item i 9 Training data 00 million ratings, 80,000, 7,770 movies 6 years of data: Test data Last few ratings of each user ( million) Evaluation criterion: Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = rxi r R (i,x) R xi Netflix s system RMSE: 0 Competition,700+ teams $ million prize for 0% improvement on Netflix 0 The winner of the Netflix Challenge! Multi-scale modeling of the data: Combine top level, regional modeling of the data, with a refined, local view: Global: Overall deviations of /movies Factorization: Addressing regional effects Collaborative filtering: Extract local patterns Global effects Factorization Collaborative filtering Global: Mean movie rating: stars The Sixth Sense is 0. stars above avg. Joe rates 0. stars below avg. Baseline estimation: Joe will rate The Sixth Sense stars Local neighborhood (CF/NN): Joe didn t like related movie Signs Final estimate: Joe will rate The Sixth Sense stars

4 //0 Earliest and most popular collaborative filtering method Derive unknown ratings from those of similar movies (item-item variant) Define similarity measure s ij of i and j Select k-nearest neighbors, compute the rating N(i; x): most similar to i that were rated by x rˆ xi j N ( i; x) s ij jn ( i; x) r s ij xj s ij similarity of i and j r xj rating of user x on item j N(i;x) set of similar to item i that were rated by x In practice we get better estimates if we model deviations: ^ rxi b xi baseline estimate for r xi b xi = μ + b x + b i μ = overall mean rating b x = rating deviation of user x = (avg. rating of user x) μ b i = (avg. rating of movie i) μ jn ( i; x) s ij ( r jn ( i; x) xj s ij b Problems/Issues: ) Similarity measures are arbitrary ) Pairwise similarities neglect interdependencies among ) Taking a weighted average can be restricting Solution: Instead of s ij use w ij that we estimate directly from data xj ) Basic Collaborative filtering: 0 CF+Biases+learned weights: 0 Global average: 6 User average:.06 Movie average:.0 Netflix: 0 Grand Prize: 06 Goal: Make good recommendations uantify goodness using RMSE: Lower RMSE better recommendations Want to make good recommendations on that user has not yet seen. Can t really do this! Let s set build a system such that it works well on known (user, item) ratings And hope the system will also predict well the unknown ratings 6

5 //0 SVD on Netflix data: R R For now let s assume we can approximate the rating matrix R as a product of thin R has missing entries but let s ignore that for now! Basically, we will want the reconstruction error to be small on known ratings and we don t care about the values on the missing ones SVD: A = U V T females The Color Purple Sense and Sensibility The Princess Diaries Serious Amadeus Ocean s The Lion King Funny Braveheart Independence Day Lethal Weapon males Dumb and Dumber 7 8 How to estimate the missing rating of user x for item i? r xi = q i p x ? = q if p xf. -. f q i = row i of p x = column x of How to estimate the missing rating of user x for item i? r xi = q i p x ? = q if p xf. -. f q i = row i of p x = column x of

6 f Factor Factor //0 How to estimate the missing rating of user x for item i? r xi = q i p x ? f = q if p xf. -. f q i = row i of p x = column x of females The Color Purple Sense and Sensibility The Princess Diaries Serious Amadeus The Lion King Funny Braveheart Lethal Weapon Ocean s Factor males Independence Day Dumb and Dumber females The Color Purple Sense and Sensibility The Princess Diaries Serious Amadeus The Lion King Funny Braveheart Lethal Weapon Ocean s Factor males Independence Day Dumb and Dumber SVD: A: Input data matrix U: Left singular vecs V: Right singular vecs : Singular values So in our case: SVD on Netflix data: R A = R, = U, = V T m n A m U n V T r xi = q i p x 6

7 //0 SVD gives minimum reconstruction error (Sum of Squared Errors): min A ij UΣV T ij U,V,Σ ij A Note two things: SSE and RMSE are monotonically related: RMSE = SSE Great news: SVD is minimizing RMSE c Complication: The sum in SVD error term is over all entries (no-rating in interpreted as zero-rating). But our R has missing entries! SVD isn t defined when entries are missing! Use specialized methods to find P, min P, r xi q i p i,x R x rxi = q i p x Note: We don t require cols of P, to be orthogonal/unit length P, map /movies to a latent space The most popular model among Netflix contestants Sudden rise in the average movie rating (early 00) Improvements in Netflix GUI improvements Meaning of rating changed Movie age Users prefer new movies without any reasons Older movies are just inherently better than newer ones Y. Koren, Collaborative filtering with temporal dynamics, KDD

8 RMSE //0 0 CF (no time bias) 0 Basic Latent Factors CF (time bias) 0 Latent Factors w/ Biases 00 + Linear time 0 + Per-day user biases + CF Millions of parameters Basic Collaborative filtering: 0 Collaborative filtering++: 0 Latent : 00 Latent +Biases: 09 Latent +Biases+Time: 076 Global average: 6 User average:.06 Movie average:.0 Netflix: 0 Grand Prize: 06 Still no prize! Getting desperate. Try a kitchen sink approach! 0 June 6 th submission triggers 0-day last call Ensemble team formed Group of other teams on leaderboard forms a new team Relies on combining their models uickly also get a qualifying score over 0% BellKor Continue to get small improvements in their scores Realize that they are in direct competition with Ensemble Strategy Both teams carefully monitoring the leaderboard Only sure way to check for improvement is to submit a set of predictions This alerts the other team of your latest score 8

9 //0 Submissions limited to a day Only final submission could be made in the last h hours before deadline BellKor team member in Austria notices (by chance) that Ensemble posts a score that is slightly better than BellKor s Frantic last hours for both teams Much computer time on final optimization Carefully calibrated to end about an hour before deadline Final submissions BellKor submits a little early (on purpose), 0 mins before deadline Ensemble submits their final entry 0 mins later.and everyone waits

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