Shaders (some slides taken from David M. course)

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1 Shaders (some slides taken from David M. course) Doron Nussbaum Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 1 Traditional Rendering Pipeline Traditional pipeline (older graphics cards) restricts developer to texture and the 3-term lighting model Pixel information was interpolated to vertices Shaders Lift the restrictions Allow developers to manipulate outcome Result vertex shaders Pixel/fragment shaders Vertex Operations Transformation and Lighting Primitive Assembly Viewport Culling Clipping Pixel Operations Rasterization Pixel Colouring Texture Mapping Per pixel operation (Blending) Frame buffer operations Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 2

2 Vertex Shader Act in parallel across all vertices Responsible for transforming Initial lighting of vertex Vertex transformation Normal transformation & normalization Texture coordinate generation & transformation Compute temporary variables to be consumed by fragment shader Per-vertex processing only information from one vertex available Transformation and Lighting Primitive Assembly Viewport Culling Clipping Vertex Shader Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 3 Fragment (pixel) Shader Act in parallel across all fragments Rasterization Responsible for computing depth and color information Only information from current fragment available Operations on interpolated values Texture access (multipass shaders) Pixel Colouring Texture Mapping Per pixel operation (Blending) Pixel Shader Produces Colour Frame buffer operations Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 4

3 Shading languages (last) High level shading languages available Three main ones: Cg (NVIDIA's "C for graphics") HLSL (MS's "high level shading language") GLSL (OpenGL's shading language) All quite similar, differ in details of API DirectX shader code is added during runtime Shader code is written in a separate file Requires transfer of data to the shader code Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 5 The Graphics Pipeline Transformations & Lighting Vertex Shading Clipping Rasterization and Interpolation Texturin g Pixel Shading Frame Buffer Operations Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 6 6

4 Vertex Shader(s) Replaces fixed functionality of vertex processor Normally get: vertex transformation normal transformation illumination Now, can write programs that do anything same program on all vertices Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 7 7 Vertex Shaders Input: Built-in attributes color normal position texture coordinate User-defined attributes Texture maps Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 8 8

5 Vertex Shaders Transform and light a single vertex Output: position color user-defined variables (for fragment shader) Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 9 9 Vertex Shader Changing vertex position in a shader create simple animations Use time as input, compute x(t), θ(t) perform displacement mapping (to mesh resolution) Generally, modify the geometry at runtime Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 10 10

6 Rasterization and Interpolation Turns the space between vertices into fragments Computes input values for fragments by interpolating values from vertices Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders Pixel Shader Operates on fragments Input: color texture coordinates user-defined variables (from vertex shader) texture maps Cannot access other pixels although, texture can be exploited for this Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 12 12

7 Pixel Shader Output: color (RGBA) depth Note, cannot change position at this point But, can compute color in sophisticated way, in parallel at each pixel Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders Shader input Previously mentioned inputs available pervertex (per-pixel) Also have shader parameters that can be set (like global variables) E.g., direction of sun, location of viewer (same for all primitives) E.g., specific parameters (material glossiness, what texture to use) Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 14 14

8 Phong and Gouraud Shading Traditional Gouraud shading: per-vertex lighting, interpolated to pixels Various problems: Visible mesh boundaries Strange effects at low mesh resolution Phong shading: normals interpolated, perpixel lighting: done in pixel shader Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders Render to Texture Shaders are memoryless Also, limit to how many instructions in shader (varies with card) Can render display buffer to texture, then use texture as input to later (or same) shader Or, just display texture on object eg, mirror Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 16 16

9 Render to Texture Simple postprocessing effects: render to texture apply pixel shader involving texture draw texture to screen Create quad covering screen, apply texture Color modification, darken/brighten, fade/dissolve Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders Shaders in DirectX Write a single.fx file with: list of shader parameters structure definitions for shader I/O vertex shader pixel shader technique and pass definition Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 18 18

10 Data flow Vertex Shader Input Vertex Shader Pixel Shader Input Pixel Shader Pixel Shader Output 19 Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 19 Shader I/O Semantics Markers that suggest how data is passed into and out of the shaders e.g., put "position" data in POSITION semantic Example vertex shader input: struct vs_in { float4 pos : POSITION0; float4 col : COLOR0; }; Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 20 20

11 Available semantics Differ depending on what the structure is position semantic not available for pixel shader output, for example TEXCOORD semantic for user-defined variables Can be used multiple times: TEXCOORD0 for first, then TEXCOORD1, TEXCOORD2... Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders Vertex Shader Input Semantics POSITION vertex location in space COLOR for the vertex color NORMAL surface normal TEXCOORD texture coordinates, also "generic" PSIZE point size (used with point sprites, chiefly for particle system effects) Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 22 22

12 Vertex Shader Output Semantics subset of the inputs POSITION COLOR TEXCOORD PSIZE Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders Pixel Shader Input Semantics Only COLOR and TEXCOORD are allowed Note: considered good practice to use vertex shader output as pixel shader input but permitted semantics different! notably, POSITION required for vs_out, prohibited by ps_in "Illegal" semantics ignored by compiler in definition, but DO NOT USE in ps code Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 24 24

13 Pixel Shader Output Semantics COLOR DEPTH depth value for depth test In routine operation, one color value (ultimate pixel color) and one depth value Can have more outputs if multipass shader, unconventional operation Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders Techniques and Passes technique mytechnique { // one or more passes, ordinarily one pass mypass { vertexshader = compile vs_1_1 myvs(); pixelshader = compile ps_2_0 myps(); } } Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 26 26

14 Shader Code Written in C-like HLSL if, for, = for assignment... scalar, vector, and matrix types int, float float2, float3, float4 float4x4 Texture type (2D texture) Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders Intrinsic Functions Some functions are built in Various mathematical functions math (exp, pow, log) trigonometric (sin, cos, tan, asin...) vector (dot, cross) "housekeeping" (clamp, lerp, abs, max) Functions for dealing with texture Partial list (common ones) in textbook Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 28 28

15 Shader Code Take control of the pipeline Very abstract right now, but examples to come in the following weeks texture procedural texture basic lighting (Phong shading) specialized lighting particle systems Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders Connecting your Shader May need a custom vertex format, if your vertex shader input is different from all existing vertex formats Set all your parameters Link to project, configure Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 30 30

16 Recap Can program parts of the graphics pipeline vertex shader output is position, color, texture coordinates pixel shader output is color for DirectX, use HLSL, a C-like language with many built-in functions Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 31 Recap Things to know: graphics pipeline tasks of vertex and pixel shaders rasterization and interpolation vertex and pixel shader input and output semantics To learn by practice: writing your own shaders Doron Nussbaum COMP Shaders 32

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