# CENG 477 Introduction to Computer Graphics. Ray Tracing: Shading

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1 CENG 477 Introduction to Computer Graphics Ray Tracing: Shading

2 Last Week Until now we learned: How to create the primary rays from the given camera and image plane parameters How to intersect these rays with various objects: Planes Spheres Triangles CENG 477 Computer Graphics 2

3 Algorithm So Far foreach pixel s: compute the viewing ray r (from e to s) t min =, obj = NULL foreach object o: if r intersects o: if t < t min : t min = t, obj = o if obj not NULL: pixel color = color of obj else pixel color = color of background

4 Image So Far The image looks bad because we did not use a realistic shading algorithm We simply set all surface points to the same color Two spheres with different colors and a gray background So much work for such a bad image!

5 Reflectance and Power We assumed that each object has a color This is not how it is in reality Each object has a reflectance distribution Each light source has a power distribution Normally, both are functions of wavelength: From forums.gardenweb.com

6 Reflectance and Power The object color occurs as a result of their interaction Same object can appear different under different lights CENG 477 Computer Graphics 6

7 Reflectance, Power, Cones foundationsofvision.stanford.edu Color is perceived due to the interaction of this reflected light by our cone pigments CENG 477 Computer Graphics 7

8 Spectral Ray Tracing Accurately modeling this process requires us to represent all objects and light sources using spectral (i.e. wavelength-based) distributions Some ray-tracers do this: Indigo renderer ( Lux renderer ( Mental ray ( CENG 477 Computer Graphics 8

9 RGB Model We will make a simplifying assumption and represent all objects and light source with three components Reflectance: R r : How much red light it reflects, a value between [0,1] R g : How much green light it reflects, a value between [0,1] R b : How much blue light it reflects, a value between [0,1] Power: I r : How much red light it emits, a value between [0, ) I g : How much green light it emits, a value between [0, ) I b : How much blue light it emits, a value between [0, )

10 Terms The following terms are important when talking about lightsurface interaction: Power Intensity Radiance Irradiance CENG 477 Computer Graphics 10

11 Power Power is the time-rate of energy It measures how much energy (i.e. in Joules) a light source emits in all possible directions per second Power is measured in Watts (W = J/s) Power (P) is also known as flux (Φ) P = dq dt Energy time CENG 477 Computer Graphics 11

12 Intensity Intensity is defined as power per solid angle Typically defined for point light sources and measured in W/sr lec-expert.com Here sr stands for steradians 3D version of an angle (called solid angle) I = dp Max steradians is 4π just like a max 2D dw angle is 2π Power Solid angle CENG 477 Computer Graphics 12

13 Solid Angle Solid angle is the 3D generalization of the angle It corresponds to a surface area on a unit sphere similar to angle corresponding to a length on a unit circle measured in steradians CENG 771 HDRI 13

14 Radiance Radiance is defined as power per solid angle per projected area Measured in Watts per steradian per meter squared (W/sr/m 2 ) Intensity L = dp dwdacosθ = di dacosθ Projected area CENG 477 Computer Graphics 14

15 Radiance Radiance is the most important unit in ray tracing Radiance of a ray does not change as the ray travels in empty space The Goal of Ray Tracing Compute the radiance along each viewing ray CENG 477 Computer Graphics 15

16 Irradiance Irradiance measures the total incident power per unit area Measured in W/m 2 Power E = dp da Area CENG 477 Computer Graphics 16

17 Irradiance from Radiance Irradiance can be computed from radiance: L n Θ dw da de = dp da = Ldwcosθ CENG 477 Computer Graphics 17

18 Radiance from Intensity Finally, radiance can be computed from intensity: n da Θ I L dw dacosθ L = di dacosθ CENG 477 Computer Graphics 18

19 Radiance from Intensity Now, imagine that da was further away The same intensity would be spread over a larger area This relationship is governed by the inverse square law I n L dw L = di dacosθ Θ da dacosθ CENG 477 Computer Graphics 19

20 Inverse Square Law The irradiance emitted by a point light source is reduced by the square of the distance from the source CENG 771 HDRI 20

21 Inverse Square Law Objects further away from the light source appear dimmer as a result This is why the distance of the stars can be judged by their brightness CENG 771 HDRI 21

22 The Cosine Law The cosine law states that a surface can receive (or emit) radiation only in proportion to its area projected in the direction of the light: I n L cosθ = w i. n w i n Θ da w i dacosθ CENG 771 HDRI 22

23 Rendering Equation Putting together all these concepts gives us an equation known as the rendering equation It models how much light arriving from an incoming direction (w i ) is reflected toward an outgoing direction (w o ) CENG 477 Computer Graphics 23

24 Rendering Equation Integration over hemisphere L o x, w o = L < x, w o + > f x, w o, w i L i x, w i cosθdw Ω Outgoing radiance Emitted radiance Reflectance Function (BRDF) Incoming radiance Area correction factor Differential solid angle CENG 477 Computer Graphics 24

25 Rendering Equation Too costly to evaluate For each surface point x we need to integrate over the entire hemisphere surrounding x Simplification: Exclude all directions except light sources Add an ambient term to simulate what was excluded CENG 477 Computer Graphics 25

26 Surface Normals (Reminder) A surface normal is a unit vector which is orthogonal to the surface and points outward from the surface n x 1 n 1 x x 2 n 2

27 Surface Normals (Reminder) Depends on the type of the object: For a plane, surface normal is given so you don t have to do anything (except to normalize it if it isn t normalized). For a sphere, compute: For a triangle, compute cross product of two edge vectors: c n = n = p c R b a x(c a) (b a)x(c a) c p R n n a b - a b

28 Shading Models We will approximate the rendering equation as a sum of three simple shading models: Diffuse shading Specular shading Ambient shading All models are based on a modified rendering equation: J Number of lights L o x, w o = I s x, w o, w i L i x, w i Outgoing radiance KLM Surface reflectance Incoming radiance CENG 477 Computer Graphics 28

29 Diffuse Shading Simulates the phenomenon that a surface can receive radiation only in proportion to its area projected in the direction of the light: w i n L o d (x, wo) = k d cosθ L i x, w i Θ x wo Outgoing radiance Diffuse reflectance coefficient Incoming radiance cosθ = max (0, w i. n) CENG 477 Computer Graphics 29

30 Diffuse Shading Note that a diffuse surface reflects equal radiance in all directions (looks equally bright from all viewing directions) Such a surface is called a Lambertian surface (1760) w i n L o d (x, wo) = k d cosθ L i x, w i Θ x wo Outgoing radiance Diffuse reflectance coefficient Incoming radiance cosθ = max (0, w i. n) CENG 477 Computer Graphics 30

31 Diffuse Shading Also, for a point light source, we may apply the inverse square law to attenuate the light based on its distance This improves realism Light intensity w i I r Θ x n wo L o d (x, wo) = k d cosθ I r 2 Outgoing radiance Diffuse reflectance coefficient Light distance cosθ = max (0, w i. n) CENG 477 Computer Graphics 31

33 Ambient Shading With diffuse shading parts of the sphere that do not face the light source are all black Ambient shading is used as a very crude approximate of the integral in rendering equation: L o a (x, wo) = k a I a Outgoing radiance Ambient reflectance coefficient Ambient light intensity

34 Ambient Shading Diffuse only Diffuse + Ambient

35 Specular Shading Simulates shiny surfaces Unlike diffuse shading, specular shading is view-dependent Several models exist with the most commonly used (and one of the simplest) being Blinn-Phong shading CENG 477 Computer Graphics 35

36 Blinn-Phong (Specular) Shading Assumes perfect reflection occurs along the mirror direction of the incoming light But for efficiency, a vector known as the half vector is computed The angle between the surface normal and the half vector determines the shininess w i Θ n α h w o h = w i + w o w i + w o x CENG 477 Computer Graphics 36

37 Blinn-Phong (Specular) Shading w i Θ n α h L o s (x, wo) = k s cosα L i x, w i w o x Outgoing radiance Specular reflectance coefficient Incoming radiance cosα = max (0, n. h) CENG 477 Computer Graphics 37

38 Blinn-Phong (Specular) Shading To control the shininess, an exponent known as the Phong exponent is introduced: Phong exponent w i Θ n α h L o s (x, wo) = k s cosα _ L i x, w i w o x Outgoing radiance Specular reflectance coefficient Incoming radiance cosα = max (0, n. h) CENG 477 Computer Graphics 38

39 Blinn-Phong (Specular) Shading Diffuse + Ambient Diffuse + Ambient + Specular

40 Phong Exponent Larger Phong exponent makes the highlight more focused CENG 477 Computer Graphics 40

41 Putting it All Together The color of an object at any point can be computed by combining diffuse, ambient, and specular components: L o x, wo = L o d x, w o + L o a x, wo + L o s (x, wo) Note that L is vector-valued in which each component represents the radiance for each color channel L o x, wo = R G B

42 Multiple Light Sources Diffuse and specular contribution of each light source must be accumulated: L o x, w o = L o a x, w o + I L o d x, w o i + L o s x, w o i J KLM Number of light sources L2program.com

43 The Ray Tracing Algorithm So Far foreach pixel s: compute the viewing ray r (from e to s) t min =, obj = NULL foreach object o: if r intersects o at point x: if t < t min : t min = t, obj = o if obj not NULL: pixel color = L o x, w o else pixel color = color of background (or black) // w o is the unit vector from s to e

44 Shadows Shadows can easily be added by checking if the light source is visible from the intersection point In the configuration below, point x is in shadow: w i Θ n α h w o x

45 Shadows To check if the light source is visible from the intersection point, we can create shadow rays, one for each light source w i Θ n α h s t = x + tw i w o x

46 Shadows Intersect s(t) with all the objects in the scene. If there is no intersection before the light source, the point is not in shadow. Otherwise it is in shadow w i Θ n α h s t = x + tw i w o x

47 Shadows To avoid self intersection due to floating point precision problems, the origin is offset by a very small amount: s t = (x + w i ε) + tw i w i Θ x n α h w o Epsilon (ε) is a very small number such as

48 The Ray Tracing Algorithm So Far foreach pixel s: compute the viewing ray r (from e to s) t min =, obj = NULL foreach object o: if r intersects o at point x: if t < t min : t min = t, obj = o if obj not NULL: // viewing ray intersected with an object else pixel color = L a // ambient shading is not affected by shadows foreach light l: compute the shadow ray s from x to l foreach object p: if s intersects p before the light source: continue the light loop; // point is in shadow no contribution from this light pixel color += L d + L s // add diffuse and specular components for this light source pixel color = color of background (or black) Do not forget clamping the pixel value to [0, 255] range and rounding it to the nearest integer!

49 This looks much better! J Image So Far

50 Recursive Ray Tracing Ray tracing is recursive by nature Remember the rendering equation L o x, w o = L < x, w o + > f x, w o, w i L i x, w i cosθdw This term itself could be due to reflection (or refraction) from another surface CENG 477 Computer Graphics 50

51 Recursive Ray Tracing Tracing the incident ray back into the scene (not just directly towards light sources) is called path tracing This is extremely costly so will only do it for perfect mirrors CENG 477 Computer Graphics 51

52 Ideal Specular Reflection (Mirrors) Mirror-like objects reflect colors of other objects Given w o, we must compute w r (reflection direction) w r n w r = -w o + 2ncosΘ = -w o + 2n(n.w o ) Θ Θ w o n, w o, w r are all unit vectors x L o m (x, wo) = k m L i x, w r Mirror reflection coefficient

53 Ideal Specular Reflection (Mirrors) For these surfaces the total radiance is equal to local shading radiance plus the radiance from the mirrored location w r n Θ x Θ w o Need to stop after a fixed number of bounces to avoid potentially infinite recursion L o x, wo = L o d x, w o + L o a x, wo + L o s x, wo + L o m (x, wo)

54 This looks much better! J Final Image

55 Ray Tracing We have only scratched the surface of ray tracing. There is so much more that can be done: Acceleration structures Adding texture Modeling non-point light sources (area lights) Refraction (glass-like materials) Participating media (fog, smoke) Subsurface scattering (candles) Complex surface models Parallel and interactive ray tracing Ray tracing on the GPU Photon mapping Global illumination Image-based lighting

56 Some Ray-traced Images

57 Some Ray-traced Images Physically Based Ray Tracer

58 Some Ray-traced Images Physically Based Ray Tracer

59 Some Ray-traced Images Physically Based Ray Tracer

60 Some Ray-traced Images Radiance Ray Tracer

61 Some Ray-traced Images METU Ray Tracer CENG 477 Computer Graphics 61

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