Class 11 Introduction to Surface BRDF and Atmospheric Scattering. Class 12/13 - Measurements of Surface BRDF and Atmospheric Scattering

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1 University of Maryland Baltimore County - UMBC Phys650 - Special Topics in Experimental Atmospheric Physics (Spring 2009) J. V. Martins and M. H. Tabacniks Class 11 Introduction to Surface BRDF and Atmospheric Scattering Class 12/13 - Measurements of Surface BRDF and Atmospheric Scattering

2 Directional Reflectance of Surfaces Surface color and Particles Reflectance by a smooth and flat surface Reflectance of a rough surface Reflectance by particles over a surface Reflectance by particles or molecules in suspension in the atmosphere

3 Solar (reflective) spectral domain

4 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Spectral dependence (for angular dependence, see Lecture 2) Vegetation reflection Frequent measure: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI = R NIR R VIS R NIR + R VIS

5 Figure thanks to Eric Vermote - UMD Different Types of Reflectors Specular reflector (mirror) diffuse reflector (lambertian) Nearly Specular reflector (water) nearly diffuse reflector Hot spot reflection

6 Fresnel Curves for Flat and Smooth Surfaces

7 Solar Energy Paths Figure thanks to Eric Vermote - UMD

8 Figure thanks to Eric Vermote - UMD Observation Geometry Solar zenith angle View zenith angle n θ s θ v φ s -φ v Relative azimuth angle

9 Figure thanks to Eric Vermote - UMD Different Types of Reflectors Specular reflector (mirror) diffuse reflector (lambertian) Nearly Specular reflector (water) nearly diffuse reflector Hot spot reflection

10 Figure thanks to Eric Vermote - UMD Perfect Lambertian Reflector Radiance of the Perfect Lambertian Reflector π 2π 0 0 RPLF ( θ, θ, φ) cos( θ )sin( θ ) dθdφ = S E s cos( θ ) s E s θ s Isotropic radiation ρ Perfect Lambertian ρ θ, θ, φ) = Lambertian reflector reflector ( S V ( θ, θ, φ) = 1 S V ρ

11 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Surface characterization In atmospheric studies, surface often characterized using bulk properties: Albedo: ρ = F F BRF (Bidirectional Reflection Function) or Simply Reflectance (R): BRF = π I μ 0 F 0 BRF = BRF(Ω,Ω 0,λ) Remote sensing CAR (Cloud absorption radiometer) measurement strategy Advantages over I: Interpretation and limits: BRDF (Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function): BRDF = BRF ρ

12 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Surface reflection patterns 10 4 CAR measurements Cloud droplet phase function (0.63 µm, red light) Scattering angle ( ) Explanation of features

13 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Sun glint as seen by MODIS Gray level temperature image

14 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Spectral dependence: dark in infrared (?) Sea surface

15 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Sea surface: measurement and modeling Cox and Munk model (1954): assumes sine waves parameterizes reflectance as a function of wind speed (2-10 m/s) Probability of surface orientation (U is wind speed): Current research: wider wind range (e.g., white caps, multiple reflection), underwater scattering (plankton)

16 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Snow reflection Nearly uniform spherical crystals Size increases and extinction coefficient decreases with age Fresh snow: ~50 µm Old dry snow: ~200 µm Wet snow: ~1000 µm (=1 mm) Radius (µm) Density (g/cm 3 ) N (1/m 3 ) VEC (1/m) e e e9 1.63e e8 0.65e3 σ 3 2 LWC r ρ

17 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Angular dependence Snow reflection Explain dependence on solar elevation and wavelength

18 Scattering by Particles: The scattering angle, Θ, is the relative angle between the incident and the scattered radiation Incident Radiation Particle Θ scattered radiation

19 Rayleigh/molecular scattering 1/4 Rayleigh or molecular scattering refers to scattering by atmospheric gases, in that case: P(Θ) = cos 2 (Θ ) ( )

20 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Rayleigh phase function Idea of polarization, sources of polarization Two components of variations in electric field Dipole scattering depends on angle between E-variations and plane of scattering (specified by incoming and outgoing directions): Perpendicular component: P(Θ) = 1 Parallel component: P(Θ) cos 2 (Θ) Overall: Clear-sky polarization P( Θ)= 3 ( 4 1+ cos2 Θ) Multiple scattering reduces polarization (e.g., clouds)

21 Phase diagram for Rayleigh scattering

22 Phase diagrams for aerosols

23 Phase function plots Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC

24 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Non-spherical particles T-matrix method: Rotational symmetrical particles: Series expansion uses spherical Henkel and Bessel functions, etc. Free public codes (FORTRAN) available, fast FDTD method: irregular particles (e.g., ice crystals, aerosol) Finite difference time domain Computationally expensive Codes available (commercial too)

25 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Sample ice crystal phase functions 22 and 46 halos

26 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Snow at longer wavelengths Thermal infrared: Snow emissivity really high (~0.99) Microwave: One issue is closeness of particles Rayleigh approximation so-so: GHz or perhaps 0.5 to 5 cm wavelength (snow grain size: 50µm when fresh, 1000µm when old and wet) Remote sensing: compare effectiveness of scattering, emission at 2 frequencies (e.g., 19, 37 GHz)

27 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Fresh ice, like a mirror Sea ice Often covered by snow Melting ponds (albedo decreases in summer)

28 Sea ice: leads and pressure ridges Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC

29 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Sea ice: inside Ice itself: absorption (hence blue color), but not much scattering except algae at boundaries Scatterers

30 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Close-up photo of sea ice Sea ice: inside Bubbles in near-melting ice Vertical structure of sea ice snow turbid: bubbles or salt bulk ice algae

31 Extra Slides:

32 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Scattering by large particles geometric optics If x > 1000, diffraction is not too important (what examples?) Snell s laws (1625): θ 1,out = θ 1,in sinθ 1 sinθ 2 = c i c 2 = m r,2 m r,1 Critical angle: θ t =90 (sin(θ t )=1), If θ is greater than critical angle: internal bouncing (Figure uses a different notation, n instead of m r ) For light coming out of water, critical angle is about 50. Nice online demonstration (

33 Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC Sample Mie phase functions Cloud droplet, r = 10 µm, λ = 0.55 µm (green) Figure from a book corona aureole Why no ripples? Why no polarization? glory

34 Corona, aureole Figure thanks to Tamas Varnai/JCET - UMBC

35 Aerosol size effect on Scattering: Visible Near-infrared Fine particles from smoke Visible Near-infrared Coarse dust particles Visible Near-infrared Fine particles from smoke

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