# Shading Languages. Seminar Computer Graphics. Markus Kummerer

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4 Filtered map access Texture maps and other forms of mapped data are accessed from shaders as simple function calls, with prefiltered return values. Any multichannel value can be stored in a map, accessed by a shader and used to control any aspect of shading. Function library The shading language includes a large library of mathematical, color, optical, geometric and noise functions. The common shading functions for calculating ambient, diffuse, specular and Phong reflections are also predefined. 5 EXAMPLES Ci = Cs; Oi = Os; Ci = Os * ( Ci * (Ka * ambient() + Kd * diffuse(nf)) + specularcolor * Ks * specular(nf, -I, roughness)); Instead of the surface color Cs, txtplastic() uses a texture map to provide the surface s diffuse reflection. The last example uses a displacement shader: displacement pits ( float Km = 0.03; string marks = ) float magnitude; First I provide a simple surface shader: surface metal ( float Ka = 1, Ks = 1, roughness =.25) point Nf = faceforward(normalize(n), I); if (marks!= ) magnitude = float texture(marks); else magnitude = 0; P += -Km * magnitude * normalize(n); N = calculatenormal(p); Oi = Os; Ci = Os * Cs * (Ka * ambient() + Ks * specular(nf, -I, roughness)); The specular() function implements a surface reflection that is not diffuse, but is rather concentrated around the mirror direction. The instance variable roughness is passed to specular to control the concentration of the specular highlight. In the pits() shader, the value in the optional texture map is used to displace the surface. The fact, that the surface is actually being displaced (as opposed to simply manipulating the normal) is shown in the bulb s profile. Figure 6 shows the resulting image: The next example uses texture mapping: surface txtplastic ( float Ks =.5, Kd =.5, Ka = 1, roughness =.1; color specularcolor = 1; string mapname = ) point Nf = faceforward(n, I); if (mapname!= ) Ci = color texture(mapname); else Figure 6: metal(), txtplastic() and pits() shader applied

5 CONCLUSION While the RenderMan Interface is a complete scene description methodoloy, its true power arises from the use of shaders. Procedures written in the RenderMan shading language are associated with individual surfaces and called during rendering, so that the shading can vary with position of surface, angle of view, time etc. This flexibility has had a widespread impact on production animation. Pixar s PhotoRealistic RenderMan has become the de facto standard in photorealistic rendering. REFERENCES Steve Upstill: The RenderMan Companion, Addison Wesley 1989 Pixar Webpage: Mark S. Peercy, Marc Olano, John Airey, P. Jeffrey Ungar: Interactive Multi-Pass Programmable Shading, Computer Graphics Proceedings 2000

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