Contents. Preface xvii Acknowledgments. CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Parallel Computing 1. CHAPTER 2 Parallel Programming Platforms 11


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1 Preface xvii Acknowledgments xix CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Parallel Computing Motivating Parallelism The Computational Power Argument from Transistors to FLOPS The Memory/Disk Speed Argument The Data Communication Argument Scope of Parallel Computing Applications in Engineering and Design Scientific Applications Commercial Applications Applications in Computer Systems Organization and Contents of the Text Bibliographic Remarks 8 Problems 9 CHAPTER 2 Parallel Programming Platforms Implicit Parallelism: Trends in Microprocessor Architectures Pipelining and Superscalar Execution Very Long Instruction Word Processors Limitations of Memory System Performance* Improving Effective Memory Latency Using Caches Impact of Memory Bandwidth Alternate Approaches for Hiding Memory Latency 21 vii
2 viii Contents Tradeoffs of Multithreading and Prefetching Dichotomy of Parallel Computing Platforms Control Structure of Parallel Platforms Communication Model of Parallel Platforms Physical Organization of Parallel Platforms Architecture of an Ideal Parallel Computer Interconnection Networks for Parallel Computers Network Topologies Evaluating Static Interconnection Networks Evaluating Dynamic Interconnection Networks Cache Coherence in Multiprocessor Systems Communication Costs in Parallel Machines Message Passing Costs in Parallel Computers Communication Costs in SharedAddressSpace Machines Routing Mechanisms for Interconnection Networks Impact of ProcessProcessor Mapping and Mapping Techniques Mapping Techniques for Graphs CostPerformance Tradeoffs Bibliographic Remarks 74 Problems 76 CHAPTER 3 Principles of Parallel Algorithm Design Preliminaries Decomposition, Tasks, and Dependency Graphs Granularity, Concurrency, and TaskInteraction Processes and Mapping Processes versus Processors Decomposition Techniques Recursive Decomposition Data Decomposition Exploratory Decomposition Speculative Decomposition Hybrid Decompositions Characteristics of Tasks and Interactions Characteristics of Tasks Characteristics of InterTask Interactions Mapping Techniques for Load Balancing Schemes for Static Mapping Schemes for Dynamic Mapping 130
3 ix 3.5 Methods for Containing Interaction Overheads Maximizing Data Locality Minimizing Contention and Hot Spots Overlapping Computations with Interactions Replicating Data or Computations Using Optimized Collective Interaction Operations Overlapping Interactions with Other Interactions Parallel Algorithm Models The DataParallel Model The Task Graph Model The Work Pool Model The MasterSlave Model The Pipeline or ProducerConsumer Model Hybrid Models Bibliographic Remarks 142 Problems 143 CHAPTER 4 Basic Communication Operations OnetoAll Broadcast and AlltoOne Reduction Ring or Linear Array Mesh Hypercube Balanced Binary Tree Detailed Algorithms Cost Analysis AlltoAll Broadcast and Reduction Linear Array and Ring Mesh Hypercube Cost Analysis AllReduce and PrefixSum Operations Scatter and Gather AlltoAll Personalized Communication Ring Mesh Hypercube Circular Shift Mesh Hypercube 181
4 x Contents 4.7 Improving the Speed of Some Communication Operations Splitting and Routing Messages in Parts AllPort Communication Summary Bibliographic Remarks 188 Problems 190 CHAPTER 5 Analytical Modeling of Parallel Programs Sources of Overhead in Parallel Programs Performance Metrics for Parallel Systems Execution Time Total Parallel Overhead Speedup Efficiency Cost The Effect of Granularity on Performance Scalability of Parallel Systems Scaling Characteristics of Parallel Programs The Isoefficiency Metric of Scalability CostOptimality and the Isoefficiency Function A Lower Bound on the Isoefficiency Function The Degree of Concurrency and the Isoefficiency Function Minimum Execution Time and Minimum CostOptimal Execution Time Asymptotic Analysis of Parallel Programs Other Scalability Metrics Bibliographic Remarks 226 Problems 228 CHAPTER 6 Programming Using the MessagePassing Paradigm Principles of MessagePassing Programming The Building Blocks: Send and Receive Operations Blocking Message Passing Operations NonBlocking Message Passing Operations MPI: the Message Passing Interface 240
5 xi Starting and Terminating the MPI Library Communicators Getting Information Sending and Receiving Messages Example: OddEven Sort Topologies and Embedding Creating and Using Cartesian Topologies Example: Cannon s MatrixMatrix Multiplication Overlapping Communication with Computation NonBlocking Communication Operations Collective Communication and Computation Operations Barrier Broadcast Reduction Prefix Gather Scatter AlltoAll Example: OneDimensional MatrixVector Multiplication Example: SingleSource ShortestPath Example: Sample Sort Groups and Communicators Example: TwoDimensional MatrixVector Multiplication Bibliographic Remarks 276 Problems 277 CHAPTER 7 Programming Shared Address Space Platforms Thread Basics Why Threads? The POSIX Thread API Thread Basics: Creation and Termination Synchronization Primitives in Pthreads Mutual Exclusion for Shared Variables Condition Variables for Synchronization Controlling Thread and Synchronization Attributes Attributes Objects for Threads Attributes Objects for Mutexes 300
6 xii Contents 7.7 Thread Cancellation Composite Synchronization Constructs ReadWrite Locks Barriers Tips for Designing Asynchronous Programs OpenMP: a Standard for Directive Based Parallel Programming The OpenMP Programming Model Specifying Concurrent Tasks in OpenMP Synchronization Constructs in OpenMP Data Handling in OpenMP OpenMP Library Functions Environment Variables in OpenMP Explicit Threads versus OpenMP Based Programming Bibliographic Remarks 332 Problems 332 CHAPTER 8 Dense Matrix Algorithms MatrixVector Multiplication Rowwise 1D Partitioning D Partitioning MatrixMatrix Multiplication A Simple Parallel Algorithm Cannon s Algorithm The DNS Algorithm Solving a System of Linear Equations A Simple Gaussian Elimination Algorithm Gaussian Elimination with Partial Pivoting Solving a Triangular System: BackSubstitution Numerical Considerations in Solving Systems of Linear Equations Bibliographic Remarks 371 Problems 372 CHAPTER 9 Sorting Issues in Sorting on Parallel Computers Where the Input and Output Sequences are Stored How Comparisons are Performed 380
7 xiii 9.2 Sorting Networks Bitonic Sort Mapping Bitonic Sort to a Hypercube and a Mesh Bubble Sort and its Variants OddEven Transposition Shellsort Quicksort Parallelizing Quicksort Parallel Formulation for a CRCW PRAM Parallel Formulation for Practical Architectures Pivot Selection Bucket and Sample Sort Other Sorting Algorithms Enumeration Sort Radix Sort Bibliographic Remarks 416 Problems 419 CHAPTER 10 Graph Algorithms Definitions and Representation Minimum Spanning Tree: Prim s Algorithm SingleSource Shortest Paths: Dijkstra s Algorithm AllPairs Shortest Paths Dijkstra s Algorithm Floyd s Algorithm Performance Comparisons Transitive Closure Connected Components A DepthFirst Search Based Algorithm Algorithms for Sparse Graphs Finding a Maximal Independent Set SingleSource Shortest Paths Bibliographic Remarks 462 Problems 465
8 xiv Contents CHAPTER 11 Search Algorithms for Discrete Optimization Problems Definitions and Examples Sequential Search Algorithms DepthFirst Search Algorithms BestFirst Search Algorithms Search Overhead Factor Parallel DepthFirst Search Important Parameters of Parallel DFS A General Framework for Analysis of Parallel DFS Analysis of LoadBalancing Schemes Termination Detection Experimental Results Parallel Formulations of DepthFirst BranchandBound Search Parallel Formulations of IDA* Parallel BestFirst Search Speedup Anomalies in Parallel Search Algorithms Analysis of Average Speedup in Parallel DFS Bibliographic Remarks 505 Problems 510 CHAPTER 12 Dynamic Programming Overview of Dynamic Programming Serial Monadic DP Formulations The ShortestPath Problem The 0/1 Knapsack Problem Nonserial Monadic DP Formulations The LongestCommonSubsequence Problem Serial Polyadic DP Formulations Floyd s AllPairs ShortestPaths Algorithm Nonserial Polyadic DP Formulations The Optimal MatrixParenthesization Problem Summary and Discussion Bibliographic Remarks 531 Problems 532
9 xv CHAPTER 13 Fast Fourier Transform The Serial Algorithm The BinaryExchange Algorithm A Full Bandwidth Network Limited Bandwidth Network Extra Computations in Parallel FFT The Transpose Algorithm TwoDimensional Transpose Algorithm The Generalized Transpose Algorithm Bibliographic Remarks 560 Problems 562 APPENDIX A Complexity of Functions and Order Analysis 565 A.1 Complexity of Functions 565 A.2 Order Analysis of Functions 566 Bibliography 569 Author Index 611 Subject Index 621
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