# Introduction to the Distributed Real-Time System

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1 Introduction to the Distributed Real-Time System Insup Lee Department of Computer and Information Science School of Engineering and Applied Science University of Pennsylvania CIS 541, Spring 2010 When is a Computer System Real-Time? The correctness of the system behavior depends on o The logical results of the computations, o Physical instant at which these results are produced. Man-Machine Interface Instrumentation Interface Operator (Operator Cluster) Real-Time Computer System (Computational Cluster) Controlled Object (Controlled Cluster) <Real-time system> Spring 10 CIS

2 The Property of Real-Time System A real-time computer system must react to stimuli from the controlled object (or the operator) within time intervals dictated by its environment. Deadline : the instant at which a result must be produced. Classification or RT-system o Soft real-time computer system. o Hard real-time computer system. Spring 10 CIS Real-Time Entity A controlled object, e.g., a car or an industrial plant, changes its state as a function of time. Real-Time Entity (RT-Entity) o A set of state variable that we are normally interested in. o Car : the speed of the car, the position of switches on the dash board, the position of a piston in a cylinder. Spring 10 CIS

3 Real-Time Image The first functional requirement of a real-time computer system is the observation of the RT entities. Real-Time Image (RT-Image) : An observation of RT-Entity The property of RT-Image o A given RT-image is only temporally accurate for a limited time interval. (Since the state of the controlled object is a function of real time.) o The length of this time interval depends on the dynamics of the controlled object. o If the state of the controlled object changes very quickly, the corresponding RT image has a very short accuracy interval. Spring 10 CIS The Meaning of Temporally Accurate An upper bound for the accuracy interval is given by the duration of the yellow phase of the traffic light How long is the observation : The traffic light is green temporally accurate? <Temporal accuracy of the traffic light information> Spring 10 CIS

4 The Distributed Real-Time System If the real-time computer system is distributed, it consists of a set of (computer) nodes interconnected by a real-time communication network. ode A ode B ode C Real-Time Communication System ode D ode E ode F <Distributed computer system> Spring 10 CIS Issue 1 : Composability An architecture is said to be composable with respect to a specified property if the system integration will not invalidate this property once the property has been established at the subsystem level. Subsystem A Subsystem B Subsystem C How does one link these subsystems such that the properties that have been established at the subsystem level will hold at the system level? Subsystem D Subsystem E Subsystem F Spring 10 CIS

5 Issue 2 : Scalability In a scalable architecture, the complexity of reasoning about the proper operation of any system function is independent of the system size. Original G ew <Transparent expansion of a node into a new cluster> Spring 10 CIS Issue 3 : Dependability Error-containment regions. o A fault-tolerant system must be structured into partitions in such a way that the consequences of faults that occur in one of these partitions can be detected and corrected or masked before these consequences corrupt the rest of the system. Replication o Given that the failure hypothesis holds, node failures can be masked by providing actively replicated nodes. o The replicas must show deterministic behavior. Spring 10 CIS

6 Reference Hermann Kopetz. Real-Time Systems: Design Principles for Distributed Embedded Applications. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Spring 10 CIS

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