# Animation & Rendering

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1 7M836 Animation & Rendering Introduction, color, raster graphics, modeling, transformations Arjan Kok, Kees Huizing, Huub van de Wetering 1

2 Purpose Understand 3D computer graphics principles Terminology Basic algorithms Complexity Get better results using modern animation and rendering packages 2

3 7M836 Lectures Exercises Assignments 3

4 Contents 1. Introduction Computer graphics, color, raster graphics, graphics pipeline, geometric modeling, transformation. 2. Viewing and visible surface determination Viewing, clipping, projection, visible surface determination 3. Illumination and shading Light sources, reflection, shading 4. Ray tracing 4

5 Contents 5. Radiosity 6. Mapping techniques Texture mapping, bump mapping, environment mapping, aliasing 7. Animation Animation process, keyframe animation, forward and inverse kinematics 8. Examples and virtual reality 5

6 Literature Computer Graphics Principles and Practice (second edition) Foley, van Dam, Feiner, Hughes 3D Computer Graphics A. Watt Advanced Animation and Rendering Techniques: Theory and Practice A. Watt, M. Watt 3D Graphics : A Visual Approach R.J. Wolfe and many more 6

7 Computer graphics Image Analysis (pattern recognition) Mathematical Model Image Image Synthesis (rendering) Modeling Image processing 7

8 Supporting disciplines Computer science algorithms, data structures, software engineering, Mathematics geometry, numerical, Physics optics, mechanics, Psychology color, perception Art and design 8

9 Color models RGB red, green, blue HSV hue, saturation, value 9

10 RGB-model 3 primary colors: red, green, and blue Color cube: Color = point in cube Additive: C = r R + g G + b B R B G 10

11 HSV-model More user oriented: based on intuitive perception Hue: tint (0-360 ) Saturation: shade (0-1) Value: brightness (0-1) Color is point in cone 11

12 Color models Limitation of color models, such as HSV and RGB: No linear relation with perception. At some places in RGB cube a small step results in a visual change, while at other places it does not. Color models describe the colors a monitor can display. That is only a subset of what a human can see. 12

13 Computer graphics Vector graphics Image is represented by continuous geometric objects: lines, curves, etc Exact, scalable Diagrams, schemes,... Examples: PowerPoint, CorelDraw,... Raster graphics Image is represented as an rectangular grid of (coloured) squares Examples: Paint, PhotoShop,... 13

14 Raster graphics Currently standard for computer graphics Screen is subdivided in grid of squares : picture elements or pixels Per pixel: n bits information Resolution: size of grid and number of bits per pixel 14

15 Raster graphics hardware system bus display processor CPU system memory frame buffer video controller monitor 15

16 Raster display 1 bit per pixel 0 = black, 1 = white pixel

17 Raster display 8 bits / pixel 256 gray values 0 (black) to 255 (white)

18 Raster display 8 bits / pixel 0 255: index in color lookup table Color lookup table contains 256 colors chosen from 16 million colors code red green blue

19 Raster display 24 bits / pixel Per pixel: red, green, and blue 16 million colors at the same time True color 128,128,128 red green blue 19

20 File formats Number of colors Size (uncompressed) 1-bit 2 black/white 37.5 kb 8-bit 256 gray values 256 color values (CLUT) kb GIF, (PNG) 24-bit 256x256x256 colors kb BMP, TGA, TIFF, JPEG 32-bit 256x256x256 colors 8 bits alpha plane kb TGA Vector EPS, PS 20

21 File formats Content image / purpose Format Many colors; continuous variation in colors (photo s) Storage Many colors; continuous variation in colors (photo s) Presentation TIFF, TGA, BMP, PPM JPEG Limited number of colors GIF, PNG Line drawings PS, EPS File format conversion tool: Irfanview 21

22 Graphics Software Special-purpose packages Photoshop, Powerpoint, AutoCAD, 3D Studio, Maya,.. Computer-graphics application programming interfaces (CG API) Set of graphics functions used from programming language Access to hardware OpenGL, Direct3D, VRML, Java3D,.. 22

23 Rendering How do I generate a realistic image of a scene? Problems: World is complex (shape, light,...) World is 3 dimensional, screen is 2 dimensional... 23

24 Problem subdivision Geometric modeling How do we define the shape of an object? Projection and hidden surface removal How do we determine what is visible on screen and what is not? Shading How do we model color, texture, and contribution of light? Rasterization How do we determine pixel values? 24

25 Graphics pipeline Geometric model Viewing Camera parameters Visible surface determination Light sources, materials Shading Rasterization Raster display 25

26 Geometric modeling World contains all kind of objects Trees, humans, buildings, clouds, mountains, waves, fire, plants, Describe objects in a way that (user) input is easy processing is easy display is easy easy means: simple things easy, complex things possible. 26

27 Geometric modeling Examples Wireframe Procedural Polygons Constructive solid geometry Curved surfaces Ad hoc techniques 27

28 Wireframe Model is sequence of lines connecting points No information on surface/faces available, therefore No visibility information no shaded images possible Face information cannot be deduced automatically 28

29 Wireframe 29

30 Procedural Shape defined by type and parameters Program interprets definition Examples Type = sphere, position = [3, 4, 5], radius = 2 Type = oak, age = 10 years Compact, easy input, tailored to application Often internal conversion to other representation We will use this in the exercises with PovRay. 30

31 Polygons Polygon consists of three or more points lying in a plane (often triangle) Model is collection of polygons Input and change of model is laborious Very well suited for hardware Often used as end representation 31

32 Polygons 32

33 Constructive solid geometry Model is defined by hierarchy of Boolean operations on standard shapes, such as cube, sphere, cylinder, cone, and torus Boolean operations union, difference, intersection Useful for input, e.g. in mechanical engineering Often, conversion to other representation needed before model is rendered 33

34 Constructive solid geometry 34

35 Curved surfaces Smooth curve defined by sequence of control points p 4 p 3 p 1 p 2 pt =1 t 3 p 0 31 t 2 t p 1 31 tt 2 p 2 t 3 p 3 35

36 Curved surfaces Smooth surface defined by grid of control points Bézier surfaces NURBS.. 36

37 The Utah teapot 37

38 Curved surfaces Very useful for modeling, e.g. in car industry, but also in cartoon animation Often conversion to other representation (polygons) before model can be rendered 38

39 Ad hoc techniques Mountain shapes: wrinkled shapes (fractals) Firework: particles Plants: Lindenmayer systems Hair and fur Fabric en clothing Clouds 39

40 Geometric modeling Input: Computer Aided Design (CAD) system Convenient for input: Curved surfaces, CSG, procedural representations Appropriate for computer processing/display: Polygons, points, lines 40

41 Modeling-transformations Besides shape, position, orientation, and scale of objects in a scene is important Often, model consists of several parts that are positioned relatively to each other 41

42 Coordinate systems world train wheel 42

43 Modeling-transformations Complete model (scene) specified in world coordinates Objects within model specified in object coordinates Transformation positions object into world Object may contain sub-objects that are specified in their own local coordinates Transformation positions sub-object into object Hierarchical model 43

44 Example World contains (for instance) human figure Human figure is built from: torso + head + arm + arm + leg + leg +.. Arm is built from: upper arm + lower arm + hand +.. Etc. 44

45 Graphics pipeline Geometric model Viewing Camera parameters Visible surface determination Light sources, materials Shading Rasterizaton Raster display 45

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