# Volume Shadows Tutorial Nuclear / the Lab

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1 Volume Shadows Tutorial Nuclear / the Lab Introduction As you probably know the most popular rendering technique, when speed is more important than quality (i.e. realtime rendering), is polygon rasterization. The problem with that technique is that it has nothing to do with the way that we actually perceive our environment in real life, so some things that we take as granted in nature (like shadows) are non-trivial to achieve. In contrast, in order to make a raytracer produce shadows is totally trivial and can be done by the very same processes that we use to render the picture. However, in polygon rasterization that is not the case, and polygon rasterization is what we are interested in when speed is important. So I am going to describe a popular algorithm of rendering shadows with polygon rasterization that is called shadow volumes (also known as stencil shadows). Prerequisites Rendering shadows is considered an advanced topic and thus requires some extend of knowledge and familiarity in computer graphics programming. So I will assume that you have good knowledge of linear algebra (coordinate systems, transformations and vector operations), that you have implemented a 3D visualization system that allows you to transform, light and draw polyhedral objects, and of course it goes without saying that you should be proficient with the programming language that you are going to use. Conventions The algorithm is really independent of graphics APIs and rendering systems, and I will present it as such, however there are some requirements from the rendering architecture: 1. the rasterizer should be watertight, that means that if we draw two triangles with a shared edge (two shared vertices) there should be no pixels along the edge that are drawn twice (overlap) or not drawn at all (gaps) or the algorithm will break. 2. there must be a stencil buffer available. A stencil buffer is a buffer of integers as many as there are pixels in our framebuffer. When we draw a pixel we must be able to decide whether to draw it or not depending on the corresponding value of the stencil buffer for that pixel, and also we should be able to either specify that the stencil buffer be incremented, decremented or not affected by placing a pixel in the framebuffer. Such an interface is presented by both OpenGL and Direct3D and it is also very easy to implement in software. 3. A Depth Buffer must be available. Of course both Direct3D and OpenGL use a depth buffer (z-buffer usually) as the main Hidden Surface Removal method so this is not much of a requirement, and this kind of functionality can be implemented extremely easily in any software rendering system that can do any kind of interpolation inside the polygons it draws (gouraud, texture mapping etc.)

4 diag.3&4: extruded shadow volume Another important issue is that the shadow volume is incomplete as it is now because it has a big hole where the object is actually located (see diagram 5), so we must cap that hole with polygons, that is easier than it sounds however as we can use the polygons of the object itself as a cap for the shadow volume (see diagram 6). diag.5: uncapped shadow volume diag.6: properly capped shadow volume

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