# CMSC427 Shading Intro. Credit: slides from Dr. Zwicker

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1 CMSC427 Shading Intro Credit: slides from Dr. Zwicker

3 Shading Compute interaction of light with surfaces Requires simulation of physics Solve Maxwell s equations (wave model)? Use geometrical optics (ray model)? 3

4 Global illumination in computer graphics Gold standard for photorealistic image synthesis Based on geometrical optics (ray model) Multiple bounces of light Reflection, refraction, volumetric scattering, subsurface scattering Computationally expensive, minutes per image Movies, architectural design, etc. 4

5 Global illumination Henrik Wann Jensen Henrik Wann Jensen Henrik Wann Jensen 5

6 Interactive applications Approximations to global illumination possible, but not standard today Usually Reproduce perceptually most important effects One bounce of light between light source and viewer Local/direct illumination Object Indirect illumination, Not supported Surface One bounce of light, direct illumination 6

7 Local illumination Each object rendered by itself 7

9 9 Material appearance What is giving a material its color and appearance? How is light reflected by a Mirror White sheet of paper Blue sheet of paper Glossy metal

10 10 Radiometry Physical units to measure light energy Based on the geometrical optics model Light modeled as rays Rays are idealized narrow beams of light Rays carry a spectrum of electromagnetic energy No wave effects, like interference or diffraction Diffraction pattern from square aperture

11 Solid angle Area of a surface patch on the unit sphere In our context: area spanned by a set of directions Unit: steradian Directions usually denoted by Unit sphere 11

12 12 Angle and solid angle Circle with radius r Sphere with radius R Angle Unit circle has radians Solid angle Unit sphere has steradians

13 13 Radiance Energy carried along a narrow beam (ray) of light Energy passing through a small area in a small bundle of directions, divided by area and by solid angle spanned by bundle of directions, in the limit as area and solid angle tend to zero Units: energy per area per solid angle

14 14 Radiance Think of light consisting of photon particles, each traveling along a ray Radiance is photon ray density Number of photons per area per solid angle Number of photons passing through small cylinder, as cylinder becomes infinitely thin

15 15 Pinhole camera Records radiance on projection screen

16 Radiance Spectral radiance: energy at each wavelength/frequency (count only photons of given wavelength) Usually, work with radiance for three discrete wavelengths Corresponding to R,G,B primaries Energy Frequency 16

17 Irradiance Energy per area: energy going through a small area, divided by size of area Radiance summed up over all directions Units Irradiance: Count number of photons per area, in the limit as area becomes infinitely small 17

18 For each pair of light/view direction, BRDF gives fraction of reflected light 18 Local shading Goal: model reflection of light at surfaces Bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) Given light direction, viewing direction, obtain fraction of light reflected towards the viewer For any pair of light/viewing directions! For different wavelenghts (or R, G, B) separately

19 BRDFs BRDF describes appearance of material Color Diffuse Glossy Mirror Etc. BRDF can be different at each point on surface Spatially varying BRDF (SVBRDF) Textures 19

20 20 Technical definition Given incident and outgoing directions BRDF is fraction of radiance reflected in outgoing direction over incident irradiance arriving from narrow beam of directions Units Incident irradiance from small beam of directions Reflected radiance

21 21 Irradiance from a narrow beam Narrow beam of parallel rays shining on a surface Area covered by beam varies with the angle between the beam and the normal n The larger the area, the less incident light per area Irradiance (incident light per unit area) is proportional to the cosine of the angle between the surface normal n and the light rays Equivalently, irradiance contributed by beam is radiance of beam times cosine of angle between normal n and beam direction n n n Area covered by beam

22 22 Shading with BRDFs Given radiance arriving from each direction, outgoing direction For all incoming directions over the hemisphere 1. Compute irradiance from incoming beam 2. Evaluate BRDF with incoming beam direction, outgoing direction 3. Multiply irradiance and BRDF value 4. Accumulate Mathematically, a hemispherical integral ( shading integral ) Incident irradiance from small beam of directions Hemisphere Reflected radiance

23 23 Shading with BRDFs If only discrete number of small light sources taken into account, need minor modification of algorithm For each light source 1. Compute irradiance arriving from light source 2. Evaluate BRDF with direction to light source, outgoing direction 3. Multiply irradiance and BRDF value 4. Accumulate Incident irradiance for each light source Reflected radiance

24 Limitations of BRDF model Cannot model Fluorescence Subsurface and volume scattering Polarization Interference/diffraction 24

25 25 Visualizing BRDFs Given viewing or light direction, plot BRDF value over sphere of directions Illustration in flatland (1D slices of 2D BRDFs) Diffuse reflection Glossy reflection

26 26 Visualizing BRDFs Can add up several BRDFs to obtain more complicated ones

27 BRDF representation How to define and store BRDFs that represent physical materials? Physical measurements Gonioreflectometer: robot with light source and camera Measures reflection for each light/camera direction Store measurements in table Too much data for interactive application 4 degrees of freedom! Light source Material sample Camera Cornell University Gonioreflectometer 27

28 BRDF representation Analytical models Try to describe phyiscal properties of materials using mathematical expressions Many models proposed in graphics Will restrict ourselves to simple models here 28

30 30 Simplified model BRDF is sum of diffuse, specular, and ambient components Covers a large class of real surfaces Each is simple analytical function Incident light from discrete set of light sources (discrete set of directions) Model is not completely physically justified! diffuse specular ambient

31 Simplified physical model Approximate model for two-layer materials Subsurface scattering leading to diffuse reflection on bottom layer Mirror reflection on (rough) top layer + diffuse specular 31

32 Diffuse reflection Ideal diffuse material reflects light equally in all directions Also called Lambertian surfaces View-independent Surface looks the same independent of viewing direction Matte, not shiny materials Paper Unfinished wood Unpolished stone Diffuse reflection Diffuse sphere 32

33 33 Diffuse reflection Radiance reflected by a diffuse ( Lambertian ) surface is constant over all directions Hm, why do we see brightness variations over diffuse surfaces?

34 Diffuse reflection Given Light color (radiance) c l Unit surface normal One light source, unit light direction Material diffuse reflectance (material color) k d Diffuse reflection c d Cosine between normal and light, converts radiance to incident irradiance 34

35 35 Diffuse reflection Notes on Parameters k d, c l are r,g,b vectors c l : radiance of light source : irradiance on surface k d is diffuse BRDF, a constant! Compute r,g,b values of reflected color c d separately

36 Diffuse reflection Provides visual cues Surface curvature Depth variation Lambertian (diffuse) sphere under different lighting directions 36

37 37 Simplified model diffuse specular ambient

38 Specular reflection Shiny or glossy surfaces Polished metal Glossy car finish Plastics Specular highlight Blurred reflection of the light source Position of highlight depends on viewing direction Sphere with specular highlight 38

39 Shiny or glossy materials 39

40 Specular reflection Ideal specular reflection is mirror reflection Perfectly smooth surface Incoming light ray is bounced in single direction Angle of incidence equals angle of reflection Angle of incidence Angle of reflection 40

41 Law of reflection Angle of incidence equals angle of reflection applied to 3D vectors L and R Equation expresses constraints: 1. Normal, incident, and reflected direction all in same plane (L+R is a point along the normal) 2. Angle of incidence q i = angle of reflection q r 41

42 42 Glossy materials Many materials not quite perfect mirrors Glossy materials have blurry reflection of light source Mirror direction Glossy teapot with highlights from many light sources

43 43 Physical model Assume surface composed of small mirrors with random orientation (microfacets) Smooth surfaces Microfacet normals close to surface normal Sharp highlights Rough surfaces Microfacet normals vary strongly Leads to blurry highlight Polished Smooth Rough Very rough

44 Physical model Expect most light to be reflected in mirror direction Because of microfacets, some light is reflected slightly off ideal reflection direction Reflection Brightest when view vector is aligned with reflection Decreases as angle between view vector and reflection direction increases 44

45 45 Phong model Simple implementation of the physical model Radiance of light source c l Specular reflectance coefficient k s Phong exponent p Higher p, smaller (sharper) highlight Reflected radiance

46 46 Note Technically, Phong BRDF is Irradiance BRDF Phong model is not usually considered a BRDF, because it violates energy conservation

47 Phong model 47

48 48 Blinn model (Jim Blinn, 1977) Alternative to Phong model Define unit halfway vector Halfway vector represents normal of microfacet that would lead to mirror reflection to the eye

49 49 Blinn model The larger the angle between microfacet orientation and normal, the less likely Use cosine of angle between them Shininess parameter Very similar to Phong Reflected radiance

50 50 Simplified model diffuse specular ambient

51 51 Ambient light In real world, light is bounced all around scene Could use global illumination techniques to simulate Simple approximation Add constant ambient light at each point Ambient light Ambient reflection coefficient Areas with no direct illumination are not completely dark

52 52 Complete model Blinn model with several light sources i diffuse specular ambient

53 Notes All colors, reflection coefficients have separate values for R,G,B Usually, ambient = diffuse coefficient For metals, specular = diffuse coefficient Highlight is color of material For plastics, specular coefficient = (x,x,x) Highlight is color of light 53

55 Light sources Light sources can have complex properties Geometric area over which light is produced Anisotropy in direction Variation in color Reflective surfaces act as light sources Interactive rendering is based on simple, standard light sources 55

56 Light sources At each point on surfaces need to know Direction of incoming light (the L vector) Radiance of incoming light (the c l values) Standard, simplified light sources Directional: from a specific direction Point light source: from a specific point Spotlight: from a specific point with intensity that depends on the direction No model for light sources with an area! 56

57 Directional light Light from a distant source Light rays are parallel Direction and radiance same everywhere in 3D scene As if the source were infinitely far away Good approximation to sunlight Specified by a unit length direction vector, and a color Light source Receiving surface 57

58 Point lights Simple model for light bulbs Infinitesimal point that radiates light in all directions equally Light vector varies across the surface Radiance drops off proportionally to the inverse square of the distance from the light Intuition for inverse square falloff? Not physically plausible! 58

59 59 Point lights p c src Light source c l v c l Receiving surface v Incident light direction Radiance

60 Spotlights Like point source, but radiance depends on direction Parameters Position, the location of the source Spot direction, the center axis of the light Falloff parameters how broad the beam is (cone angle q max ) how light tapers off at edges of he beam (cosine exponent f) 60

61 61 Spotlights Light source Receiving surface

62 62 Spotlights Photograph of spotlight Spotlights in OpenGL

64 Per-triangle, -vertex, -pixel shading May compute shading operations Once per triangle Once per vertex Once per pixel Scene data Vertex processing, Modeling and viewing transformation Projection Rasterization, visibility, (shading) Image 64

66 66 Per-vertex shading Known as Gouraud shading (Henri Gouraud 1971) Per-vertex normals Interpolate vertex colors across triangles Advantages Fast Smoother than flat shading Disadvantages Problems with small highlights

67 Per-pixel shading Also known as Phong interpolation (not to be confused with Phong illumination model) Rasterizer interpolates normals across triangles Illumination model evaluated at each pixel Implemented using programmable shaders (next week) Advantages Higher quality than Gouraud shading Disadvantages Much slower, but no problem for today s GPUs 67

68 68 Gouraud vs. per-pixel shading Gouraud has problems with highlights Could use more triangles Gouraud Per-pixel, same triangles

70 70 What about textures? How to combine colors stored in textures and lighting computations? Interpret textures as shading coefficients Usually, texture used as ambient and diffuse reflectance coefficient k d, k a Textures provide spatially varying BRDFs Each point on surface has different BRDF parameters, different appearance

71 71 Summary Local illumination (single bounce) is computed using BRDF BRDF captures appearance of a material Amount of reflected light for each pair of light/viewing directions Simplified model for BRDF consists of diffuse + Phong/Blinn + ambient Lambert s law for diffuse surfaces Microfacet model for specular part Ambient to approximate multiple bounces Light source models Directional Point, spot, inverse square fall-off Different shading strategies Per triangle, Gouraud, per pixel

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