2D graphics with WebGL

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1 2D graphics with WebGL Some material contained here is adapted from the book s slides. September 7, 2015 (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

2 Graphics Pipeline (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

3 Shaders So far we ve seen trivial vertex and fragment shaders: 1 <script id=" vertex - shader " type="x- shader /x- vertex "> 2 attribute vec4 vposition ; 3 void main () 4 { 5 gl_pointsize = 1.0; 6 gl_position = vposition ; 7 } 8 </ script > <script id=" fragment - shader " type="x- shader /x- fragment "> 12 precision mediump float ; 13 void main () 14 { 15 gl_fragcolor = vec4 ( 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 ); 16 } 17 </ script > This vertex shader simply passes the vertex position attribute (from the application) through the pipeline. The fragment shader hardcodes every fragment red. (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

4 Attributes Vertex Attributes The only mandatory attribute for a vertex is its position: 1 <script id=" vertex - shader " type="x- shader /x- vertex "> 2 attribute vec4 vposition ; 3 void main () 4 { 5 gl_pointsize = 1.0; 6 gl_position = vposition ; 7 } 8 </ script > We will add others: Color Normal vector (the vector perpendicular to the plane to which the vertex belongs to) Texture coordinate (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

5 Attributes Vertex Attributes Let s add color: 1 <script id=" vertex - shader " type="x- shader /x- vertex "> 2 attribute vec4 vposition ; 3 attribute vec4 vcolor ; // in: the attribute is what the application sends to the shader 4 varying vec4 fcolor ; // out : varying qualifier interpolates the color between the vertices 5 void main () 6 { 7 gl_pointsize = 1.0; 8 gl_position = vposition ; // pass - through 9 fcolor = vcolor ; // pass - through 10 } 11 </ script > <script id=" fragment - shader " type="x- shader /x- fragment "> 14 precision mediump float ; varying vec4 fcolor ; void main () 19 { 20 gl_fragcolor = fcolor ; // pass - through 21 } 22 </ script > (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

6 Attributes From Application to GPU The process of sending information to the GPU consists of: Creating a buffer Binding it (sets the buffer currently worked on). Remember WebGL is a state machine. Populating it Associating the buffer with shader variable and enabling it 1 var vertices = [ new vec2 (0, 1), new vec2 (1, 1), new vec2 (1, -1), new vec2 (-1, 1), new vec2 (-1, -1), new vec2 (0, -1) ]; 2 // Create buffer 3 var bufferid = gl. createbuffer (); 4 // Bind it 5 gl. bindbuffer ( gl. ARRAY_BUFFER, bufferid ); 6 // Populate it with data 7 gl. bufferdata ( gl. ARRAY_BUFFER, flatten ( vertices ), gl. STATIC_DRAW ); 8 // Associate our shader variables with our data buffer 9 var vposition = gl. getattriblocation ( program, " vposition " ); 10 gl. vertexattribpointer ( vposition, 2, gl.float, false, 0, 0 ); 11 gl. enablevertexattribarray ( vposition ); Color is just another attribute, we follow the same process to send it to the GPU. (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

7 Attributes Color Attribute to GPU 1 var colors = [ new vec4 (1, 0, 0, 1), new vec4 (0, 1, 0, 1), new vec4 (0, 0, 1, 1), new vec4 (0, 0, 0, 1), new vec4 (1, 1, 1, 1), new vec4 (0, 0, 1, 1) ]; 2 // Create buffer that will hold color data 3 var colorbufferid = gl. createbuffer (); 4 gl. bindbuffer ( gl. ARRAY_BUFFER, colorbufferid ); 5 // Populate it 6 gl. bufferdata ( gl. ARRAY_BUFFER, flatten ( colors ), gl. STATIC_DRAW ); 7 // Associate our shader variables with our data buffer 8 var vcolor = gl. getattriblocation ( program, " vcolor " ); 9 gl. vertexattribpointer ( vcolor, 4, gl.float, false, 0, 0 ); 10 gl. enablevertexattribarray ( vcolor ); (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

8 Notice how colors are interpolated. This example is available to download on the course web page. (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22 Attributes Example: Two colored triangles

9 Attributes Vertex Attributes Texture Part of an image mapped onto a triangle. We need to: Load the image from the a file on the web server. Send it to the GPU. Instruct the GPU which part of the image gets mapped onto the triangle. (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

10 Attributes Loading the texture The texture is loaded asynchronously, so mechanics are more complicated. 1 function inittexture () { 2 texture = gl. createtexture (); 3 gl. bindtexture ( gl. TEXTURE_2D, texture ); 4 gl. pixelstorei (gl. UNPACK_FLIP_Y_WEBGL, true ); 5 texture. image = new Image (); 6 texture. image. src = " trip. jpg "; 7 texture. image. onload = function () { 8 gl. bindtexture (gl. TEXTURE_2D, texture ); // set the texture we re currently working on 9 gl. pixelstorei (gl. UNPACK_FLIP_Y_WEBGL, true ); // turn upside down 10 gl. teximage2d (gl. TEXTURE_2D, 0, gl.rgba, gl.rgba, gl. UNSIGNED_BYTE, this ); // upload to GPU 11 gl. texparameteri (gl. TEXTURE_2D, gl. TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, gl. LINEAR ); 12 gl. texparameteri (gl. TEXTURE_2D, gl. TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, gl. LINEAR ); 13 } 14 } Textures must be square, sized power of two! (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

11 Attributes Texture Coordinates Triangles are textured from a unit area. Images retrieved from: (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

12 Attributes Texture Coordinate Attributes a a See textured triangles example on course web page for full source code. 1 // for reference, the vertices are as follows 2 var vertices = [ new vec2 (-1, 1), new vec2 (0, 1), new vec2 (-1, -1), new vec2 (0, 1), new vec2 (1, 1), new vec2 (1, -1), new vec2 (0, 0.8), new vec2 ( -0.9, -1), new vec2 (0.9, -1) ]; var texcoords = [ new vec2 (0, 0), new vec2 (0.5, 0), new vec2 (0, 1), new vec2 (0.5, 0), new vec2 (1, 0), new vec2 (1, 1), new vec2 (0.5, 0), new vec2 (0, 1), new vec2 (1, 1) ]; 6 7 var texcoordbufferid = gl. createbuffer (); 8 gl. bindbuffer ( gl. ARRAY_BUFFER, texcoordbufferid ); 9 gl. bufferdata ( gl. ARRAY_BUFFER, flatten ( texcoords ), gl. STATIC_DRAW ); 10 // Associate our shader variables with our data buffer 11 var vtexturecoord = gl. getattriblocation ( program, " vtexturecoord " ); 12 gl. vertexattribpointer ( vtexturecoord, 2, gl.float, false, 0, 0 ); 13 gl. enablevertexattribarray ( vtexturecoord ); (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

13 Attributes Shaders 1 <script id=" vertex - shader " type="x- shader /x- vertex "> 2 attribute vec4 vposition ; 3 attribute vec2 vtexturecoord ; // in 4 varying vec2 ftexturecoord ; // out 5 void main () 6 { 7 gl_pointsize = 1.0; 8 gl_position = vposition ; // pass - through 9 ftexturecoord = vtexturecoord ; // pass - through } 12 </ script > <script id=" fragment - shader " type="x- shader /x- fragment "> 15 precision mediump float ; varying vec2 ftexturecoord ; 18 uniform sampler2d texture ; void main () 22 { 23 gl_fragcolor = texture2d ( texture, ftexturecoord ); // sample from the image 24 } 25 </ script > (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

14 Attributes Example: Three textured triangles (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

15 GLSL Data Types C types: int, float, bool Vectors: float types: vec2, vec3, vec4 int types: ivec, and boolean: bvec Matrices: mat2, mat3, mat4. They are stored by columns and referenced m[row][column]. C++ style constructors and casting: vec3 a = vec3(1.0, 2.0, 3.0); vec2 b = vec2(a); (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

16 GLSL No Pointers There are no pointers in GLSL. Can use C structs that are populated from the application. Since matrices and vectors are basic types, they can be passed into and out-of GLSL functions. E.g.: mat3 foobar(mat3 a). Variables are passed by copying (value) (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

17 GLSL Qualifiers GLSL has many of the same qualifiers as C++, such as const Need others due to the nature of execution model Variables can change: Once per primitive Once per vertex Once per fragment At any time in the application Vertex attributes are interpolated by the rasterizer into fragment attributes. (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

18 GLSL Attribute Qualifier Attribute-qualified variables can change at most once per vertex There are a few built-in variables such as gl Position, but most have been deprecated Most are user-defined, in the application attribute float temperature; attribute vec3 velocity; (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

19 GLSL Uniform qualified Variables are constant for an entire primitive Can be changed in application and sent to shaders Most are user-defined, in the application Cannot be changed in shader Used to pass information to shader such as time, a bounding box or transformation matrices (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

20 GLSL Varying qualified Variables that are passed from vertex shader to fragment shader Automatically interpolated by the rasterizer With WebGL, GLSL uses the varying qualifier in both shaders varying vec4 color; More recent versions of WebGL use out in vertex shader and in in the fragment shader out vec4 color; //vertex shader in vec4 color; // fragment shader (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

21 GLSL Variable Naming Attributes passed to vertex shader have names beginning with v (v Position, vcolor) in both the application and the shader. Note that these are different entities with the same name. Variable variables must have the same name in both shaders Uniform variables can have the same name in both shaders, not required. (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

22 GLSL Selection Can refer to array elements using [] or selection (.) operator with: x, y, z, w r, g, b, a s, t, p, q a[2], a.b, a.z, a.p are the same (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

23 GLSL Swizzling Allows us to manipulate components, for example: vec4 a, b; a.yz = vec2(1.0, 2.0); b = a.yxzw; More details later in the course (Dr. Mihail) 2D graphics September 7, / 22

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