# Computer Graphics. Illumination and Shading

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1 () Illumination and Shading Dr. Ayman Eldeib

2 Lighting So given a 3-D triangle and a 3-D viewpoint, we can set the right pixels But what color should those pixels be? If we re attempting to create a realistic image, we need to simulate the lighting of the surfaces in the scene Fundamentally simulation of physics and optics As you ll see, we use a lot of approximations (a.k.a hacks) to do this simulation fast enough

4 What is the problem? Illumination and Shading Mesh Surfaces Must determine the color of each vertex.

5 Definitions Illumination: the transport of energy (in particular, the luminous flux of visible light) from light sources to surfaces & points Note: includes direct and indirect illumination Lighting: the process of computing the luminous intensity (i.e., outgoing light) at a particular 3-D point, usually on a surface Shading: the process of assigning colors to pixels

6 Definitions Cont. Illumination models fall into two categories: Empirical: simple formulations that approximate observed phenomenon Physically-based: models based on the actual physics of light interacting with matter We mostly use empirical models in interactive graphics for simplicity Increasingly, realistic graphics are using physically-based models

7 Components of Illumination Two components of illumination: light sources and surface properties Light sources (or emitters) Spectrum of emittance (i.e, color of the light) Geometric attributes o Position o Direction o Shape Directional attenuation

8 Components of Illumination Cont. Surface properties Reflectance spectrum (i.e., color of the surface) Geometric attributes o Position o Orientation o Micro-structure Common simplifications in interactive graphics Only direct illumination from emitters to surfaces Simplify geometry of emitters to trivial cases

9 Ambient Light Source Objects not directly lit are typically still visible E.g., the ceiling in this room, undersides of desks This is the result of indirect illumination from emitters, bouncing off intermediate surfaces Images without ambient light have too much contrast Very rough approximation of global illumination Too expensive to calculate (in real time), so we use a hack called an ambient light source No directional characteristics; illuminates all surfaces equally Amount reflected depends on surface properties Independent of object, light and viewer position

10 Directional Light Source For a directional light source we make the simplifying assumption that all rays of light from the source are parallel As if the source is infinitely far away from the surfaces in the scene A good approximation to sunlight The direction from a surface to the light source is important in lighting the surface With a directional light source, this direction is constant for all surfaces in the scene

11 Point Light Source A point light source emits light equally in all directions from a single point The direction to the light from a point on a surface thus differs for different points: So we need to calculate a normalized vector to the light source for every point we light.

12 Other Light Sources Spotlights are point sources whose intensity falls off directionally. Supported by OpenGL Area light sources define a 2-D emissive surface (usually a disc or polygon) Good example: fluorescent light panels

13 Physics of Reflection Ideal diffuse reflection An ideal diffuse reflector, at the microscopic level, is a very rough surface (real-world example: chalk) Because of these microscopic variations, an incoming ray of light is equally likely to be reflected in any direction over the hemisphere What does the reflected intensity depend on?

14 Lambert s Cosine Law Ideal diffuse surfaces reflect according to Lambert s cosine law: The energy reflected by a small portion of a surface from a light source in a given direction is proportional to the cosine of the angle between that direction and the surface normal These are often called Lambertian surfaces Note that the reflected intensity is independent of the viewing direction, but does depend on the surface orientation with regard to the light source

15 The amount of light falling on a surface is proportional to the angle between the surface normal and the light source direction n=surface normal s=direction of illumination Ө= angle between s and n Computing Diffuse Reflection n s I I = = ρ cosθ ρ ( n s) The amount of light that is reflected I = I cosθ max(cosθ,0) Can not have negative light A Lambertian sphere. NOTE: independent of location of camera

16 Specular Reflection Shiny surfaces exhibit specular reflection Polished metal Glossy car finish A light shining on a specular surface causes a bright spot known as a specular highlight Where these highlights appear is a function of the viewer s position, so specular reflectance is view-dependent

17 Physics of Reflection At the microscopic level a specular reflecting surface is very smooth Thus rays of light are likely to bounce off the microgeometry in a mirror-like fashion The smoother the surface, the closer it becomes to a perfect mirror

18 Optics of Reflection Reflection follows Snell s Laws: The incoming ray and reflected ray lie in a plane with the surface normal The angle that the reflected ray forms with the surface normal equals the angle formed by the incoming ray and the surface normal: θ l = θ r

19 Non-Ideal Specular Reflection An Empirical Approximation In general, we expect most reflected light to travel in direction predicted by Snell s Law But because of microscopic surface variations, some light may be reflected in a direction slightly off the ideal reflected ray As the angle from the ideal reflected ray increases, we expect less light to be reflected

20 Illumination and Shading Models How do we model light sources? Point Area How do we model the reflectance of light off a surface? Direct illumination Global illumination How do we model of the material properties of a surface? Plastic, metallic, shiny, etc

21 Light Sources Distant light source Local light source Distant light source No attenuation Described by a direction Local light source Attenuation with distance Point light sourced described by a position (x,y,z) Area light sources more complicated

22 Local Light Source Attenuation Radial intensity attenuation function for a point light source for distance d 1 d 2 Radial intensity attenuation function used in practice 1 a + a d a 2 d 2

23 OpenGL Lighting gllight* (name, property, value) Name specifies which light multiple lights, starting with GL_LIGHT0 glgetintegerv( GL_MAX_LIGHTS, &n ); Properties Position and type Ambient (GL_AMBIENT), diffuse, (GL_DIFFUSE) and specular (GL_SPECULAR) colors Attenuation coefficients

24 Types of Lights OpenGL Lighting Cont. OpenGL supports two types of Lights Local (Point) light sources Infinite (Directional) light sources Type of light controlled by w coordinate w = 0 Infinite Light directed along (x y z) w 0 Local Light positioned at (x/w y/w z/w)

25 OpenGL Lighting void InitLights (void) { glenable(gl_lighting); glenable(gl_light0); glenable(gl_light1); Cont. // Turn on the power // Flip each light s switch GLfloat lightpos0[] = {.5, 1,.5, 0}; gllightfv(gl_light0, GL_POSITION, lightpos0); } GLfloat lightpos1[] = {4,4,4,0}; gllightfv(gl_light1, GL_POSITION, lightpos1);

26 OpenGL Moving Light Source Light sources transform like geometry Only modelview transform is applied Stationary light Set transform to identity before specifying location Moving light push matrix, move light, pop matrix to uniquely control a light s position Light source attached to camera

27 Lambertian (diffuse) Simple Models in CG Irradiance from any direction is equally scattered in all directions Specular (Perfect) reflection Irradiance from a direction is reflected in only a single direction A Lambertian surface scatters light equally in all directions Diffuse surface Phong Combines Lambertian with specular n Glossy surface Perfect reflector

28 Find a simple way to create highlights that are viewdependent and happen at about the right place Not physically based Use dot product (cosine) of eye and reflection of light direction about surface normal (n) Raise cosine lobe to some power (n) to control roughness Note: vectors should be normalized to unit length r : direction of specula reflection Phong Reflectance Model s I θ n θ α r = s + 2( s n- )n- = a cos θ + b cos diffuse specular r n e ( ) α Roughness

29 Phong Reflectance Model Cont. I = a cos θ + bcos n ( ) α a=0.3, b=0.7, n=2 a=0.7, b=0.3, n=0.5 diffuse specular A Lambertian sphere.

30 Light sources have color Color Objects have color Typically each color component (R,G,B) is treated separately For plastics the color of the specular highlight is the color of the light. For metals the color of the highlight is the color of the metal. Typically a separate color is assigned for the diffuse and specular components

31 Applying Illumination We now have an illumination model for a point on a surface Assuming that our surface is defined as a mesh of polygonal facets, which points should we use? Keep in mind: It s a fairly expensive calculation Several possible answers, each with different implications for the visual quality of the result

32 Flat Shading The simplest approach, flat shading, calculates illumination at a single point for each polygon: If an object really is faceted, is this accurate? No: o For point sources, the direction to light varies across the facet o For specular reflectance, direction to eye varies across the facet

33 Flat Shading Cont. We can refine it a bit by evaluating the Phong lighting model at each pixel of each polygon, but the result is still clearly faceted: To get smoother-looking surfaces we introduce vertex normals at each vertex Usually different from facet normal

34 Vertex Normal Vertex normal may be Provided with the model Computed from first principles Approximated by averaging the normals of the facets that share the vertex

35 Goaraud Shading This is the most common approach Perform Phong lighting at the vertices Linearly interpolate the resulting colors over faces This is what OpenGL does Does this eliminate the facets? No

37 Phong Shading Phong shading is not the same as Phong lighting, though they are sometimes mixed up Phong lighting: the empirical model we ve been discussing to calculate illumination at a point on a surface Phong shading: linearly interpolating the surface normal across the facet, applying the Phong lighting model at every pixel o Same input as Gouraud shading o Usually very smooth-looking results o But, considerably more expensive

38 Transforming Normals Irritatingly, the matrix for transforming a normal vector is not the same as the matrix for the corresponding transformation on points In other words, don t just treat normals as points: Some not-too-complicated affine analysis shows: If A is a matrix for transforming points, then (A T ) -1 is the matrix for transforming normals When is this the same matrix?

39 Shading Polygons Flat shading Use one surface normal for each polygon Calculate one color for each polygon glshademodel(gl_flat) Gouraud shading Calculate a surface normal at each vertex Calculate color at each vertex Interpolate color inside polygon glshademodel(gl_smooth) Phong normal interpolation Calculate a surface normal at each vertex Interpolate surface normals across polygon Use interpolated normals to calculate color at each pixel OpenGL doesn t do this, but you can with programmable shaders

40 OpenGL Specifying Material Properties glmaterialfv (face, property, value) Separate materials for front and back Properties

41 OpenGL Specifying Normal Use the function glnormal3f( x, y, z) Normals define how a surface reflects light Specifying a normal sets the current normal Remains unchanged until user alters it Usual sequence: glnormal, glvertex., glnormal, glvertex.., glnormal, glvertex Usually, we want unit normals for shading glenable( GL_NORMALIZE ) This is slow either normalize them yourself or don t use glscale scaling affects a normal s length You should generate normals for curved surfaces GLUT does it automatically for teapot, cylinder,

42 Questions?

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