2 23.1 The Ray Model of Light Light very often travels in straight lines. We represent light using rays, which are straight lines emanating from an object. This is an idealization, but is very useful for geometric optics.
3 23.2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror Law of reflection: the angle of reflection (that the ray makes with the normal to a surface) equals the angle of incidence.
4 23.2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror When light reflects from a rough surface, the law of reflection still holds, but the angle of incidence varies. This is called diffuse reflection.
5 23.2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror With diffuse reflection, your eye sees reflected light at all angles. With specular reflection (from a mirror), your eye must be in the correct position.
6 23.2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror What you see when you look into a plane (flat) mirror is an image, which appears to be behind the mirror.
7 23.2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror This is called a virtual image, as the light does not go through it. The distance of the image from the mirror is equal to the distance of the object from the mirror.
8 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Spherical mirrors are shaped like sections of a sphere, and may be reflective on either the inside (concave) or outside (convex).
9 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Rays coming from a faraway object are effectively parallel.
10 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Parallel rays striking a spherical mirror do not all converge at exactly the same place if the curvature of the mirror is large; this is called spherical aberration.
11 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors If the curvature is small, the focus is much more precise; the focal point is where the rays converge.
12 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Using geometry, we find that the focal length is half the radius of curvature: (23-1) Spherical aberration can be avoided by using a parabolic reflector; these are more difficult and expensive to make, and so are used only when necessary, such as in research telescopes.
13 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors We use ray diagrams to determine where an image will be. For mirrors, we use three key rays, all of which begin on the object: 1. A ray parallel to the axis; after reflection it passes through the focal point 2. A ray through the focal point; after reflection it is parallel to the axis 3. A ray perpendicular to the mirror; it reflects back on itself
14 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors
15 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors The intersection of these three rays gives the position of the image of that point on the object. To get a full image, we can do the same with other points (two points suffice for many purposes).
16 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Geometrically, we can derive an equation that relates the object distance, image distance, and focal length of the mirror: (23-2)
17 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors We can also find the magnification (ratio of image height to object height). (23-3) The negative sign indicates that the image is inverted. This object is between the center of curvature and the focal point, and its image is larger, inverted, and real.
18 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors If an object is outside the center of curvature of a concave mirror, its image will be inverted, smaller, and real.
19 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors If an object is inside the focal point, its image will be upright, larger, and virtual.
20 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors For a convex mirror, the image is always virtual, upright, and smaller.
21 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Problem Solving: Spherical Mirrors 1. Draw a ray diagram; the image is where the rays intersect. 2. Apply the mirror and magnification equations. 3. Sign conventions: if the object, image, or focal point is on the reflective side of the mirror, its distance is positive, and negative otherwise. Magnification is positive if image is upright, negative otherwise. 4. Check that your solution agrees with the ray diagram.
22 23.4 Index of Refraction In general, light slows somewhat when traveling through a medium. The index of refraction of the medium is the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light in the medium: (23-4)
23 23.5 Refraction: Snell s Law Light changes direction when crossing a boundary from one medium to another. This is called refraction, and the angle the outgoing ray makes with the normal is called the angle of refraction.
24 23.5 Refraction: Snell s Law Refraction is what makes objects halfsubmerged in water look odd.
25 23.5 Refraction: Snell s Law The angle of refraction depends on the indices of refraction, and is given by Snell s law: (23-5)
26 23.6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics If light passes into a medium with a smaller index of refraction, the angle of refraction is larger. There is an angle of incidence for which the angle of refraction will be 90 ; this is called the critical angle: (23-5)
27 23.6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics If the angle of incidence is larger than this, no transmission occurs. This is called total internal reflection.
28 23.6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics Binoculars often use total internal reflection; this gives true 100% reflection, which even the best mirror cannot do.
29 23.6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics Total internal reflection is also the principle behind fiber optics. Light will be transmitted along the fiber even if it is not straight. An image can be formed using multiple small fibers.
30 23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing Thin lenses are those whose thickness is small compared to their radius of curvature. They may be either converging (a) or diverging (b).
31 23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing Parallel rays are brought to a focus by a converging lens (one that is thicker in the center than it is at the edge).
32 23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing A diverging lens (thicker at the edge than in the center) make parallel light diverge; the focal point is that point where the diverging rays would converge if projected back.
33 23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing The power of a lens is the inverse of its focal length. (23-7) Lens power is measured in diopters, D. 1 D = 1 m -1
34 23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing Ray tracing for thin lenses is similar to that for mirrors. We have three key rays: 1. This ray comes in parallel to the axis and exits through the focal point. 2. This ray comes in through the focal point and exits parallel to the axis. 3. This ray goes through the center of the lens and is undeflected.
35 23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing
36 23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing For a diverging lens, we can use the same three rays; the image is upright and virtual.
37 25.2 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses Nearsightedness can be corrected with a diverging lens.
38 25.2 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses And farsightedness with a diverging lens.
39 23.8 The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification The thin lens equation is the same as the mirror equation: (23-8)
40 23.8 The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification The sign conventions are slightly different: 1. The focal length is positive for converging lenses and negative for diverging. 2. The object distance is positive when the object is on the same side as the light entering the lens (not an issue except in compound systems); otherwise it is negative. 3. The image distance is positive if the image is on the opposite side from the light entering the lens; otherwise it is negative. 4. The height of the image is positive if the image is upright and negative otherwise.
41 23.8 The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification The magnification formula is also the same as that for a mirror: (23-9) The power of a lens is positive if it is converging and negative if it is diverging.
42 23.8 The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification Problem Solving: Thin Lenses 1. Draw a ray diagram. The image is located where the key rays intersect. 2. Solve for unknowns. 3. Follow the sign conventions. 4. Check that your answers are consistent with the ray diagram.
43 23.9 Combinations of Lenses In lens combinations, the image formed by the first lens becomes the object for the second lens (this is where object distances may be negative).
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