# CT79 SOFT COMPUTING ALCCS-FEB 2014

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1 Q.1 a. Define Union, Intersection and complement operations of Fuzzy sets. For fuzzy sets A and B Figure Fuzzy sets A & B The union of two fuzzy sets A and B is a fuzzy set C, written as C=AUB or C=A OR B, whose membership function (MF) is related to those of A and B by µ c (x) =max (µ A (x), µ B (x)) = µ A (x)vµ B (x) Figure C= A OR B The intersection of two fuzzy sets A and B is a fuzzy set C, written as C=A B or C=A AND B, whose membership function (MF) is related to those of A and B by µ C (x) =min(µ A (x), µ B (x)) = µ A (x)ᴧµ B (x) Figure C= A AND B IETE 1

2 The complement of fuzzy set A, denoted by A, is defined as µ A (x) = 1- µ A (x) Figure C= A Q.1 b. Write Advantages of Sugeno and Mamdani methods. Advantages of the Sugeno Method It is computationally efficient. It works well with linear techniques (e.g., PID control). It works well with optimization and adaptive techniques. It has guaranteed continuity of the output surface. It is well suited to mathematical analysis. Advantages of the Mamdani Method It is intuitive. It has widespread acceptance. It is well suited to human input. Fuzzy inference system is the most important modeling tool based on fuzzy set theory. The FISs are built by domain experts and are used in automatic control, decision analysis, and various other expert systems Q.1 c. Discuss common applications of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) IETE 2

3 Q.1 d. What is Attribute dependency in rough sets? In rough set theory, the notion of dependency is defined very simply. Let us take two (disjoint) sets of attributes, set and set, and inquire what degree of dependency obtains between them. Each attribute set induces an (indiscernibility) equivalence class structure, the equivalence classes induced by given by, and the equivalence classes induced by given by. Let, where is a given equivalence class from the equivalence-class structure induced by attribute set. Then, the dependency of attribute set on attribute set,, is given by Q.1 e. Describe Ant Colony Algorithms. The ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO) is a probabilistic technique for solving computational problems which can be reduced to finding good paths through graphs.this algorithm is a member of the ant colony algorithms family, in swarm intelligence methods, and it constitutes some metaheuristic optimizations. Initially proposed by Marco Dorigo in 1992 in his PhD thesis, the first algorithm was aiming to search for an optimal path in a graph, based on the behavior of ants seeking a path between their colony and a source of food. The original idea has since diversified to solve a wider class of numerical problems, and as a result, several problems have emerged, drawing on various aspects of the behavior of ants. Some of the variations of ACO are: Elitist ant system Max-Min ant system (MMAS) Ant Colony System Rank-based ant system (ASrank) Continuous orthogonal ant colony (COAC) Q.1 f. Explain Random and Tournament Selection methods of Genetic Algorithm. IETE 3

4 Q.1 g. Explain Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). In computer science, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a computational method that optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to improve a candidate solution with regard to a given measure of quality. PSO optimizes a problem by having a population of candidate solutions, here dubbed particles, and moving these particles around in the search-space according to simple mathematical formulae over the particle's position and velocity. Each particle's movement is influenced by its local best known position and is also guided toward the best known positions in the search-space, which are updated as better positions are found by other particles. This is expected to move the swarm toward the best solutions. PSO is a metaheuristic as it makes few or no assumptions about the problem being optimized and can search very large spaces of candidate solutions. However, metaheuristics such as PSO do not guarantee an optimal solution is ever found. More specifically, PSO does not use the gradient of the problem being optimized, which means PSO does not require that the optimization problem be differentiable as is required by classic optimization methods such as gradient descent and quasi-newton methods. PSO can therefore also be used on optimization problems that are partially irregular, noisy, change over time, etc. IETE 4

5 Q.2 a. Consider we have three fuzzy sets, given by Make suitable decisions based on fuzzy ordering. Q.2 b. For the given membership function as shown in Figure below. Determines the defuzzified output value by any Four methods. IETE 5

6 Centroid method A11(0, 0), (2, 0.7) The straight line may be: IETE 6

7 Q.3 a. Describe Classification of Fuzzy Sets. IETE 7

8 The fuzzy sets can be classified based on the membership functions. They are: Normal fuzzy set. If the membership function has at least one element in the universe whose value is equal to 1, then that set is called as normal fuzzy set. Subnormal fuzzy set. If the membership functions have the membership values less than 1, then that set is called as subnormal fuzzy set. These two sets are shown in Fig. 1. Convex fuzzy set. If the membership function has membership values those are monotonically increasing, or, monotonically decreasing, or they are monotonically increasing and decreasing with the increasing values for elements in the universe, those fuzzy set A is called convex fuzzy set. Nonconvex fuzzy set. If the membership function has membership values which are not strictly monotonically increasing or monotonically decreasing or both monotonically increasing and decreasing with increasing values for elements in the universe, then this is called as nonconvex fuzzy set. Figure 2 shows convex and nonconvex fuzzy set. When intersection is performed on two convex fuzzy sets, the intersected portion is also a convex fuzzy set. This is shown in Figure 3. The shaded portions show that the intersected portion is also a convex fuzzy set. The membership functions can have different shapes like triangle, trapezoidal, Gaussian, etc. Figure 1. (1) Normal fuzzy set and (2) subnormal fuzzy set Figure. 2. (a) Convex set and (b) Nonconvex set IETE 8

9 Figure 3 Intersection of two convex sets Q.3 b. Explain Mutation process of Genetic Algorithm. Q.3 c. Discuss Crossover techniques of Genetic Algorithm Techniques are. 1 One-point crossover 2 Two-point crossover 3 "Cut and splice" 4 Uniform Crossover and Half Uniform Crossover 5 Three parent crossover IETE 9

10 Also need to describe each briefly. Q.4 a. Define Radial Basis Function Networks. Explain the architecture and learning methods of RBFN? Page Number 238 of Neuro Fuzzy and Soft Computing Q.4 b. Explain the procedure of Roulette Wheel Selection method. Q.5 a. Compare feed-forward and back-forward neural network. IETE 10

11 Q.5 b. What is the weight adjustment with sigmoid activation function? Weight adjustment with sigmoid activation function IETE 11

12 Q.6 a. Write classification of Hybrid function. IETE 12

13 IETE 13

14 IETE 14

15 Q.6 b. What is Edge Selection and Pheromone update in the ant colony optimization algorithm. An ant is a simple computational agent in the ant colony optimization algorithm. It iteratively constructs a solution for the problem at hand. The intermediate solutions are referred to as solution states. At each iteration of the algorithm, each ant moves from a state to state, corresponding to a more complete intermediate solution. Thus, each ant computes a set of feasible expansions to its current state in each iteration, and moves to one of these in probability. For ant, the probability of moving from state to state depends on the combination of two values, viz., the attractiveness of the move, as computed by some heuristic indicating the a priori desirability of that move and the trail level of the move, indicating how proficient it has been in the past to make that particular move. The trail level represents a posteriori indication of the desirability of that move. Trails are updated usually when all ants have completed their solution, increasing or decreasing the level of trails corresponding to moves that were part of "good" or "bad" solutions, respectively. In general, the th ant moves from state to state with probability where is the amount of pheromone deposited for transition from state to, 0 is a parameter to control the influence of, is the desirability of state transition (a priori knowledge, typically, where is the distance) and 1 is a parameter to control the influence of. and represent the attractiveness and trail level for the other possible state transitions. Pheromone update When all the ants have completed a solution, the trails are updated by where is the amount of pheromone deposited for a state transition, is the pheromone evaporation coefficient and is the amount of pheromone deposited by th ant, typically given for a TSP problem (with moves corresponding to arcs of the graph) by where is the cost of the th ant's tour (typically length) and is a constant IETE 15

16 Q.7 a. Define Rough set and write it s applications. Definition of a rough set Let be a target set that we wish to represent using attribute subset ; that is, we are told that an arbitrary set of objects comprises a single class, and we wish to express this class (i.e., this subset) using the equivalence classes induced by attribute subset. In general, cannot be expressed exactly, because the set may include and exclude objects which are indistinguishable on the basis of attributes. For example, consider the target set, and let attribute subset, the full available set of features. It will be noted that the set cannot be expressed exactly, because in, objects are indiscernible. Thus, there is no way to represent any set which includes but excludes objects and. However, the target set can be approximated using only the information contained within by constructing the -lower and -upper approximations of : Applications Rough set methods can be applied as a component of hybrid solutions in machine learning and data mining. They have been found to be particularly useful for rule induction and feature selection (semantics-preserving dimensionality reduction). Rough set-based data analysis methods have been successfully applied in bioinformatics, economics and finance, medicine, multimedia, web and text mining, signal and image processing, software engineering, robotics, and engineering (e.g. power systems and control engineering). Q.7 b. Describe Neuro-Fuzzy Hybrid System and Neuro-Genetic Hybrid and System. IETE 16

17 IETE 17

18 IETE 18

19 Q.7 c. Write applications of Ant colony optimization algorithms. Ant colony optimization algorithms have been applied to many combinatorial optimization problems, ranging from quadratic assignment to protein folding or routing vehicles and a lot of derived methods have been adapted to dynamic problems in real variables, stochastic problems, multi-targets and parallel implementations. It has also been used to produce near-optimal solutions to the travelling salesman problem. Others are Scheduling problem Vehicle routing problem Assignment problem Set Problem Data mining Discounted cash flows in project scheduling Distributed Information Retrieval Grid Workflow Scheduling Problem Image processing Text Books 1. S.R. Jang, C.T. Sun and E. Mizutani, Neuro-Fuzzy and Soft Computing, Pearson Education Andries P. Engelbrecht, Fundamentals of Computational Swarm Intelligence, John Wiley and Sons, 2007 IETE 19

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