Understanding M3G 2.0 and its Effect on Producing Exceptional 3D Java-Based Graphics. Sean Ellis Consultant Graphics Engineer ARM, Maidenhead

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1 Understanding M3G 2.0 and its Effect on Producing Exceptional 3D Java-Based Graphics Sean Ellis Consultant Graphics Engineer ARM, Maidenhead

2 Introduction M3G 1.x Recap ARM M3G Integration M3G 2.0 Update M3G 2.0 Hints and Tips 2

3 Audience Who were we addressing with M3G 1.x? Experienced Software Engineers Technical Artists 3D design skill Java design skill The same people need to be able to use M3G

4 Basic MIDlet Architecture initialize Load assets, find commonly used objects, set up display, initialize game state Main loop. Don t create/destroy objects if possible Throttle to consistent frame rate Keep paint() as simple as possible Be careful with threads user input scene update request redraw wait Get any user input, network play, etc. Game logic, animate, align if necessary Wait to ensure consistent frame rate paint() Canvas calls Graphics3D to perform rendering Exit request shut down Release assets, tidy up 4

5 Java with Native Library Typical Relative Performance Interaction from user 3D object control 3D Application using SwV classes FAST 2D Most UI work Network done Classes here - at Classes high (J2ME) (J2ME) performance 2D UI Library (J2ME) Java Virtual Machine Network Library (J2ME) Input Classes (J2ME) Input Library (J2ME) OS Hardware Sound Classes (OEM specific) Scene management Animations 3D transformation Sound Lighting Library Triangle drawing (OEM specific) Texturing Transfer to 2D Other M3G Classes (OEM specific) Other M3G Library (OEM specific) 5

6 Class Hierarchy Object3D Node Camera Group World Light Mesh SkinnedMesh Transformable Sprite3D MorphingMesh Texture2D VertexBuffer VertexArray IndexBuffer TriangleStripArray Appearance Material Image2D Background Fog PolygonMode AnimationTrack CompositingMode KeyframeSequence AnimationController Graphics3D Loader RayIntersection Transform 6

7 M3G Integration Top End Interface Description Java Application JSR184/297 API Example API implementations shipped as source C API Java Interface Layer API interface code is auto-generated for KNI, JNI, C C Interface Layer C++ Implementation Supplied as a linkable library Some C++ libraries pre-linked 7

8 M3G Integration Bottom End Supplied as a linkable library C Interface Layer C++ Implementation Some C++ libraries pre-linked Example implementations shipped as source Abstraction APIs OS Abstraction GL Abstraction GLES Surface Abstraction EGL Surface abstraction needs access to Java VM internals (pixel buffers for images and Graphics objects) OS 8

9 M3G 2.0 Integration Tip Good news, everyone almost exactly the same as M3G 1.1 Some software-renderer-only integration APIs removed New abstraction interface for DynamicImage2D 9

10 M3G 2.0 New Features Core block Fixed function (Open GL ES 1.1) M3G 1.x compatible Mali55 or Mali200 Advanced block Programmable hardware Mali200 Can mix modes in API, with some restrictions Can implement both blocks on OpenGL ES 2.0 M3G 2.0 Core M3G 1.1 M3G 2.0 Advanced Must be completely present or absent less fragmentation Javax.microedition.m3g.shader package is major new addition Disclaimer Spec still in draft details subject to change 10

11 New Image Types Dynamic Image2D Image Cube Base Slow path Renderer Fast path Java Video Control Native Video Source 11

12 Mesh and its components Mesh VertexBuffer IndexBuffer IndexBuffer IndexBuffer Appearance Appearance Appearance VertexArray VertexArray VertexArray VertexArray VertexArray VertexArray VertexArray Vertex positions Vertex normals Vertex colors Texture coords Point sizes User attributes User attributes Vertex arrays now can contain values of type byte, short, fixed point, float, or half-float 12

13 Mesh and its components Mesh VertexBuffer Index into IndexBuffer IndexBuffer IndexBuffer Appearance Appearance Appearance TriangleStrip Line Array Point Array Array Explicit Explicit or sequential vertex Explicit or sequential vertex indices or sequential Explicit vertex indices or sequential indices vertex indices 13

14 Appearance and its components Appearance Shader Appearance Base Material Primitive Polygon Point Line Mode Compositing Mode Fog Diffuse, emissive, specular, ambient colors, shininess Perspective correction, winding, culling Screen buffer write mode, thresholds, depth offset Fog density, color Texture2D Texture2D Texture application mode, coordinate transform, wrapping Image2D 14

15 Appearance and its components Shader Appearance Shader Program Shader Uniforms Vertex Shader Fragment Shader Texture2D TextureCube Image2D ImageCube 15

16 Vertex Shader First, vertex shader transforms the position of each vertex in an object. Often also calculates other parameters Position Normal Color Texture Coords Transformed Position Lit Color Transformed Texture Coords Input Object Transformed Object 16

17 Vertex Shader Same vertex shader runs on all vertices in the object. Can assign different shaders to other objects. Results are interpolated across primitives. Input Object Transformed Object 17

18 Fragment Shader Fragment shader takes interpolated ( varying ) variables, and calculates the actual color at each pixel. Texture Transformed Object Rendered Object 18

19 Fragment Shader Or it abandons the pixel, rendering nothing, and leaving a hole. Texture Transformed Object Rendered Object 19

20 Fragment Shader Same fragment shader runs on all pixels in the object. Can assign different shaders to other objects. Transformed Object You get the idea Rendered Object 20

21 M3G 2 Shader Model uniform mat4 modelviewmatrix; attribute vec4 vertexpos; void main() { gl_position = modelviewmatrix * vertexpos; } uniform mat4 modelviewmatrix; attribute vec4 vertexpos; void main() { gl_position = modelviewmatrix * vertexpos; } Compiled Vertex Shader Complete Shader Program Compiled Frag Shader Vertex Buffer Complete Appearance Appearance Uniform Variables Mesh Disclaimer: Specification subject to change 21

22 Why keep Appearance? ShaderAppearance can do anything than Appearance can So why keep it? Easy transition More artists know fixed function pipeline than shaders. Perfectly adequate for a lot of content. Familiarity means faster development. Can use all the legacy content out there. Can mix and match both in one scene. Therefore, shader designers can concentrate effort where it s going to be noticed. 22

23 Shader Example 23

24 Shader Walkthrough So, what does a shader look like? Isn t that just C? // Astoundingly dull fragment shader uniform vec4 flatcolor; void main() { gl_fragcolor = flatcolor; } 24

25 Same Geometry, Dull Shader 25

26 C-like language Syntax familiar to most programmers Simplified: no pointers, no characters New types: vectors, matrices, samplers New qualifiers: attribute, uniform, varying Limited size 95% common between Vertex and Fragment shaders 26

27 RenderPass Mesh Any Node can have a RenderPass VertexBuffer World IndexBuffer IndexBuffer IndexBuffer Meshes Appearance Appearance Appearance Texture2D Image2D Renders to 27

28 M3G2 Shader Tips TANSTAAFL Shaders are not free they take time, even on hardware Complex shaders take more time Specialize shaders for common parameter values 28

29 The #1 Important Shader Optimization Tip DON T DO IT yet Premature optimisation is the root of all evil C.A.R.Hoare Profile! Is it really the shaders at all? How fast does my shader run? What s really holding it up? Then you can really improve things 29

30 M3G2 Shader Tips Compilation time is fast, but not insignificant Compile once, use many times (This is why compilation happens at construction) Don t create shaders on the fly It s a balancing act More specialized shaders = faster execution More specialized shaders = slower startup 30

31 M3G2 Shader Tips Tools support often at the low level Requires cooperation from the hardware Mali hardware has debugging/profiling counters Low-level performance analysis tools Framerate Throughput Cache usage Higher level analysis tools under development: Shader debugger Shader profiler 31

32 Animation Changes Content developers requested changes to animation system. Designed for ease-of-use. Details currently under discussion in expert group. 32

33 You can contribute Early Draft Review Spec available at: Or just go to jcp.org and enter 297 in the Go to JSR box. The download link is on the resulting page. We want to hear feedback, especially from content developers We want you to understand it We want you to use it We want you to make good-looking applications exceptional 33

34 Q&A 34

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