# Review for Ray-tracing Algorithm and Hardware

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1 Review for Ray-tracing Algorithm and Hardware Reporter: 邱敬捷博士候選人 Lan-Da Van ( 范倫達 ), Ph. D. Department of Computer Science National Chiao Tung University Taiwan, R.O.C. Summer, /7/26

2 Outline Introduction Ray-casting Algorithm Ray-tracing Algorithm Traversal Tree Algorithm Ray-tracing Hardware Traversal Tree and Build Tree Hardware Conclusion

3 Graphics Pipeline Review Properties of the Graphics Pipeline Primitives are transformed and projected (not depending on display resolution) Primitives are processed one at a time. Forward-mapping from geometrical space to image space

4 Realistic Images synthesis Global illumination Radiosity (Finite elements) Ray tracing (Point sampling) Photon mapping (Point sampling) 4

5 Ray Casting (1/2) Ray-casting searches along lines of sight, or rays, to determine the primitive that is visible along it. Properties of ray-casting: Go through all primitives at each pixel Image space sample first Analytic processing afterwards

6 Ray Casting (2/2) For every pixel shoot a ray from the eye through the pixel. For every object in the scene Find the point of intersection with the ray closest to (and in front of) the eye Compute normal at point of intersection Compute color for pixel based on point and normal at intersection closest to the eye (e.g. by Phong illumination model). t 0

7 Ray-tracing (1/4) Cast rays from the eye point the same way as ray casting Builds the image pixel by pixel, one at a time Cast additional rays from the hit point to determine the pixel color Shoot rays toward each light. If they hit something, then the object is shadowed from that light, otherwise use standard model for the light Reflection rays for mirror surfaces, to see what should be reflected in the mirror Refraction rays to see what can be seen through transparent objects Sum all the contributions to get the pixel color

8 Ray-tracing (2/4)

9 Ray-tracing (3/4) Primary rays (Red) are always traced from the camera into the scene in order to determine what will be visible in the final image. To create the direct illumination and shadows "Shadow rays "(Black) are traced from each rendered point to each light in the scene. If the rays "hit" a light the point is illuminated based on the light's settings. If they hit an object the point is shaded. Reflection rays (Green) are traced in the direction of the reflection vector which depends on the type of reflection - fresnel or normal and the index of refraction of the material. The direction of the Refraction rays/transmitted rays (Blue) depends only on the index of refraction of the material.

10 Ray-tracing (4/4)

11 Recursive Ray-tracing Recursive Ray Tracing R 2 N 3 T 3 Viewpoint N 2 R 1 T 1 R 3 L 1 L 2 N 1 L 3 L 1 R 1 T 1 L 2 L 3 N i surface normal R i reflected ray Eye R 2 R 3 T 3 L i shadow ray T i transmitted (refracted) ray

12 Recursive Ray-tracing How to detect other tracing paths in red color?

13 Recursive Ray-tracing Ray Tracing Illumination E V L Nˆ R V reflected I I ( ( E E, V ) I direct I reflected I transmitte d I P I reflected I k reflected r I( P, Vreflected) I transmitte d V transmitte d I k transmitte d t I( P, V d transmitte ) I direct k a I ambient I light k d Nˆ Lˆ k s Vˆ Rˆ n shiny

14 Ray-tracing Results

15 Phone Reflection Model Visual illustration of the Phong equation: here the light is white, the ambient and diffuse colors are both blue, and the specular color is white, reflecting a small part of the light hitting the surface, but only in very narrow highlights. The intensity of the diffuse component varies with the direction of the surface, and the ambient component is uniform (independent of direction).

16 Reflection Ray

17 Reflection Ray Results

18 Refraction Ray Snell s Law Tˆ Tˆ Tˆ sin Mˆ t sin t i r sin cos Nˆ Nˆ i I Mˆ ( cos ˆ) sin i sin t ( Nˆ cos i Iˆ) cos tn ˆ sin i ( cos cos ) Nˆ Iˆ r cos Nˆ Iˆ i cos 1 sin t i i t 2 t t t r 2 1 sin r 2 i 2 1 (1 ( Nˆ Iˆ) r Nˆ cos Iˆ Î i i Nˆ 2 ) Nˆ Nˆ cos i t Tˆ Mˆ Note that I is the negative of the incoming ray ˆ 2 r 1 r (1 ( Nˆ Iˆ) 2 T ( Nˆ Iˆ) ) Nˆ Iˆ r Total internal reflection when the square root is imaginary

19 Refraction Ray Results

20 Shadow Ray Shoot a ray to the light and try to get the distance to the nearest intersection point. If the distance > the distance to the light, add the lighting effect Space partition will speed up its computation.

21 Shadow Ray pixel light d_l eye d_hit p d_l < d_hit, visibility = 1

22 Shadow Ray d_l light eye d_hit d_l > d_hit, visibility = 0

23 Computational Flow H. Y. Kim, Y. J. Kim, L. S. Kim, MRTP: Mobile Ray Tracing Processor with Reconfigurable Stream Multi- Processors for High Datapth Utilization, IEEE JSSC, Feb

24 KD Tree Structure and Results

25 BVH Tree Structure and Results Bounding Volume Hierarchy atastructure.php

26 Octree Structure and Results gpugems2_chapter37.html

27 RT Sphere Intersection O P D Ray: P O td P C R Sphere: C 2 2 O td C R 0 t 2 b b 4ac 2a 2 at bt c 2 a D 0 b 2( O C) D c ( O C) R 2 2

28 RT Triangle Intersection Barycentric Coordinates P c0p0 c1p 1 c2p2 c0 c1 c2 1 c c 1 2 ( P P ) ( P P ) ( P P ) ( P P ) ( P P ) ( P P ) ( P P ) ( P P ) c 1 c c This can be used for checking if P is In the triangle. It is also useful when Computing the texture coordinates and Other linear interpolations (normal). P is inside the triangle if c 1 > 0, c 2 >0, and c 1 +c 2 < 1 CS 535

29 Ray-tracing Hardware Perspective: Heterogeneous computation architecture (skip here) Commercial GPU (skip here) CUDA OpenCL Specialized hardware for ray-tracing

30 Specialized Hardware - Ray Tracing Acceleration Structure Tracing General Computation

31 Ray Processing Unit (RPU) 5.5fps SIGGRAPH '05 ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Papers, Pages fps

32 Samsung Reconfigurable GPU based on Ray Tracing (SGRT) Fairy scene, 34 fps at 4 SGRT cores (500 MHz T&I unit and 1 GHz SRP

33 Samsung Reconfigurable GPU based on Ray Tracing (SGRT) Combine the advantages of Rasterization & RayTracing HPG '13 Proceedings of the 5th High-Performance Graphics Conference Pages

34 Internal Architecture of the T&I Unit Node Leaf Node HPG '13 Proceedings of the 5th High-Performance Graphics Conference Pages

35 Traversal Unit Single Pipeline Parallel Pipeline

37 Execution Flow

38 RT Results

39 T&I Engine T&I Engine: Traversal and Intersection Engine for Hardware Accelerated Ray Tracing

40 A Hardware Unit for Fast SAHoptimised BVH Construction ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 32, No. 4, Article 139, Publication Date: July 2013

41 Build Times Real-time rendering: 30fps One flame: 33ms

42 Conclusion Pon: Global illumination can be achieved. The computational independence of each ray makes ray tracing amenable to parallelization. Con: Sacrifice performance to improve image quality Divergence of second rays reduce parallelism If the traditional ray tracing is not realistic enough, additional techniques (photon mapping, path tracing) can be considered to show more accurate simulation of real-world lighting

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