# Computer Graphics. Shading. Based on slides by Dianna Xu, Bryn Mawr College

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1 Computer Graphics Shading Based on slides by Dianna Xu, Bryn Mawr College

3 Perception of 3D Objects Displays almost always 2 dimensional. Depth cues needed to restore the third dimension. Need to portray planar, curved, textured, translucent, etc. surfaces. Model light and shadow.

4 Depth Cues Eliminate hidden parts (lines or surfaces) Wire-frame Front? Back? Opaque Object Convex? Concave?

5 Why we need shading Suppose we build a model of a sphere using many polygons and color it with glcolor. We get something like But we want

7 Shading Motivation Originated in trying to give polygonal models the appearance of smooth curvature. Numerous shading models Quick and dirty Physics-based Specific techniques for particular effects Non-photorealistic techniques (pen and ink, brushes, etching)

8 Shading Why does the image of a real sphere look like Light-material interactions cause each point to have a different color or shade Need to consider Light sources Material properties Location of viewer Surface orientation

9 Wireframe: Color, no Substance

10 Substance but no Surfaces

11 Why the Surface Normal is Important

12 Scattering Light strikes A Some scattered Some absorbed Some of scattered light strikes B Some scattered Some absorbed Some of this scattered light strikes A and so on

13 Rendering Equation The infinite scattering and absorption of light can be described by the rendering equation Cannot be solved in general Ray tracing is a special case for perfectly reflecting surfaces Rendering equation is global and includes Shadows Multiple scattering from object to object

14 Global Effects shadow translucent surface multiple reflection

15 Local vs Global Rendering Correct shading requires a global calculation involving all objects and light sources Incompatible with pipeline model which shades each polygon independently (local rendering) However, in computer graphics, especially real time graphics, we are happy if things look right Exist many techniques for approximating global effects

16 Light-Material Interaction Light that strikes an object is partially absorbed and partially scattered (reflected) The amount reflected determines the color and brightness of the object A surface appears red under white light because the red component of the light is reflected and the rest is absorbed The reflected light is scattered in a manner that depends on the smoothness and orientation of the surface

17 Light Sources General light sources are difficult to work with because we must integrate light coming from all points on the source

18 Simple Light Sources Point source Model with position and color Distant source = infinite distance away (parallel) Spotlight Restrict light from ideal point source Ambient light Same amount of light everywhere in scene Can model contribution of many sources and reflecting surfaces

19 Surface Types The smoother a surface, the more reflected light is concentrated in the direction a perfect mirror would reflected the light A very rough surface scatters light in all directions smooth surface rough surface

20 Shading Computation WANT: Color at some object point P. Know direction of eye/viewer v and (point) light source l. Know surface geometry, or can otherwise compute the surface normal n at P. Know desired surface reflectance properties at P. (We ll look at some of these soon, too.) Assume all vectors are normalized to unit length

21 Computing the Polygon Face Normal Vector n = (c - b ) (a - b ) Normal Normal = cross product of 3 or more non-collinear vertices

22 Finding the Surface Normal at Point P n? P l v n Want outward-facing normal -- the one with a component towards v. If (n. v) < 0 then n -n For curved surfaces the normal can be computed explicitly.

23 Shading Computation Given l, n, v Compute reflected color as a function of l, n, v and other attributes of the surface and lighting. A local reflection model enables the calculation of the the reflected light intensity from a point on the surface of an object.

24 Light Reflection from a Surface at a Point Ignoring color for now: the necessary computations are the same for each source and for each primary color to account for all reflected light. This means the surface shade is a function of L a ambient light L d diffuse light L s specular light

25 Phong Model A simple model that can be computed rapidly Has three components Diffuse Specular Ambient Uses four vectors To source l To viewer v Normal n Perfect reflector r

26 Ideal Reflector Normal is determined by local orientation Angle of incidence = angle of reflection The three vectors must be coplanar r = 2 (l n ) n - l

27 Ambient Light Ambient light is the result of multiple interactions between (large) light sources and the objects in the environment Amount and color depend on both the color of the light(s) and the material properties of the object Add k a I a to model ambient term reflection coef intensity of ambient light

28 Lambertian Surface Perfectly diffuse reflector Light scattered equally in all directions Amount of light reflected is proportional to the vertical component of incoming light reflected light can be modeled as cos θ i cos θ i = l n if vectors normalized

29 The Reflectance Terms Diffuse: Ambient: Specular:?

30 Specular Surfaces Most surfaces are neither ideal diffusers nor perfectly specular (ideal refectors) Smooth surfaces show specular highlights due to incoming light being reflected in directions concentrated close to the direction of a perfect reflection specular highlight

31 Modeling Specular Relections Phong proposed using a term that dropped off as the angle between the viewer and the ideal reflection increased I r ~ k s I cos α φ reflected shininess coef intensity incoming intensity absorption coef φ

32 The Shininess Coefficient Values of α between 100 and 200 correspond to metals Values between 5 and 10 give surface that look like plastic cos α φ -90 φ 90

33 The Reflectance Terms Diffuse: Ambient: Specular: r is the direction of reflection a approximates the amount of mirror reflection

34 Distance Terms The light from a point source that reaches a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them We can add a factor of the form 1/(ad + bd +cd 2 ) to the diffuse and specular terms The constant and linear terms soften the effect of the point source

35 Light Sources In the Phong Model, we add the results from each light source Each light source has separate diffuse, specular, and ambient terms to allow for maximum flexibility even though this form does not have a physical justification Separate red, green and blue components Hence, 9 coefficients for each point source I dr, I dg, I db, I sr, I sg, I sb, I ar, I ag, I ab

36 Material Properties Material properties match light source properties Nine absorbtion coefficients k dr, k dg, k db, k sr, k sg, k sb, k ar, k ag, k ab Shininess coefficient α

37 Adding up the Components For each light source and each color component, the Phong model can be written (without the distance terms) as For each color component we add contributions from all sources

38 The Halfway Vector Consider the unit vector halfway between l and v h = (l+v)/ l+v If we use n h rather than r v, we avoid calculation of r

39 Modified Phong Model When v, l, n and r lie in the same plane, So, the same exponent α yields a smaller specular highlight Absorb the change in angle into α 2ψ = φ The use of the halfway vector was first suggested by Blinn The resulting lighting model is known as the Blinn-Phong or modified Phong model OpenGL default is the modified Phong model

40 Shading Polygons In our model, shading depends on the three vectors l, n, and v If viewer is distant, then v is constant If light is distant, then l is constant Distant is interpreted relative to the size of the polygon In OpenGL, v and l are constant by default

41 Diffuse Shading on Polygon Surfaces

42 Phong Specular Spheres

43 Flat Shading glshademodel(gl_flat); When n is also constant over the entire polygon. Shading is only calculated once for each polygon. Efficient, but shows too much (too abrupt) shading difference between adjacent polygons.

44 Flat Cow

45 Shading to Fake Surface Curvature on Polygon Models Fake curvature due to neighboring polygons Often make edge type dependent on dihedral angle between polygon faces: If around 180 o plus/minus a threshold (say 15 o ), shade smoothly. Otherwise treat as sharp (defined) edge. hard edges soft edges

46 Gouraud Shading glshademodel(gl_smooth); Also known as interpolative shading. Only effective if true vertex normals are given, i.e. the vertices of the polygon all have different normals. Gouraud shading defines a vertex normal to be the (normalized) average of normals of all polygons sharing this vertex.

47 Interpolating Normals S1 S2 S3 S4 = Vertex Normal = average of neighboring normals. Note that normals do not formally exist at vertices or along edge.

48 GOURAUD Shading S1 S2 Scanline X S3 S4 What is the Gouraud shade at X?

50 The colors before interpolation along the scanline Intensity (luminance) Scanline

51 After linear interpolation along the scanline Intensity (luminance) Scanline Because we interpolate linearly, we get smooth ramps BUT DISCONTINUOUS FIRST DERIVATIVES at every edge: creating MACH Bands!

52 Mach bands

53 Gouraud and Phong Shading Gouraud Shading Find average normal at each vertex (vertex normals) Apply Phong model at each vertex Interpolate vertex shades across each polygon Phong shading Find vertex normals Interpolate vertex normals across edges Find shades along edges Interpolate edge shades across polygons

54 Phong Shading Interpolate normals at vertices and then edges, then at every interior point Then make independent shading calculation based on each point s normal.

55 Phong Cow

56 Gouraud Cow

58 Contour Edge Problem No shading can possibly change the underlying polygon model.

59 Cow Times 16

60 Polygons Interpreted as Curved Surface Control Mesh

61 Multiple Light Sources, Curved Surfaces, and Phong Shading

62 Teapots! Only differences in these teapots are the parameters in the Phong model

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