Real-Time Rendering (Echtzeitgraphik) Michael Wimmer

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1 Real-Time Rendering (Echtzeitgraphik) Michael Wimmer

2 Walking down the graphics pipeline Application Geometry Rasterizer

3 What for? Understanding the rendering pipeline is the key to real-time rendering! Insights into how things work Understanding algorithms Insights into how fast things work Performance Vienna University of Technology 3

4 Simple Graphics Pipeline Often found in text books Will take a more detailed look into OpenGL Application Geometry Rasterizer Display Vienna University of Technology 4

5 Rasterizer Geometry CPU Graphics Pipeline (pre DX10, OpenGL 2 ) Application Driver Command Geometry Rasterization Texture Fragment Display Nowadays, everything part of the pipeline is hardware accelerated Fragment: pixel, but with additional info (alpha, depth, stencil, ) Vienna University of Technology 5

6 Fixed Function Pipeline Dataflow View video memory on-chip cache memory system memory geometry commands pre-tnl cache vertex shading (T&L) post-tnl cache CPU triangle setup rasterization textures frame buffer texture cache fragment shading and raster operations Vienna University of Technology 6

7 Rasterizer Geometry CPU DirectX10 /OpenGL 3.2 Evolution Application Driver Command Geometry Rasterization Texture Fragment Display Vertex Buffer Index Buffer Texture Texture Buffer Memory Texture Depth Color Stream Out Input Assembler Vertex Shader Geometry Shader Setup/ Rasterization Pixel Shader Output Merger Vienna University of Technology 7

8 OpenGL 3.0 OpenGL 2.x is not as capable as DirectX 10 But: New features are vendor specific extensions (geometry shaders, streams ) GLSL a little more restrictive than HLSL (SM 3.0) OpenGL 3.0 did not clean up this mess! OpenGL extensions Geometry shaders are only an extension New: depreciation mechanism OpenGL 4.x New extensions OpenGL ES compatibility! Vienna University of Technology 8

9 DirectX 11/OpenGL 4.0 Evolution Not the final place in the pipeline!!! fixed programmable memory Constant Constant Constant Constant Control Point Shader Input Tessellator Assembler Vertex Shader Geometry Shader Setup Rasterizer Pixel Shader Output Merger Sampler Sampler Sampler Stream Sampler out Texture Vertex Buffer Index Texture Buffer Texture Stream Buffer Texture Depth Stencil Render Target Memory Vienna University of Technology 9

10 DirectX 11 Tesselation At unexpected position! Compute Shaders Multithreading To reduce state change overhead Dynamic shader linking HDR texture compression Many other features... Vienna University of Technology 10

11 DirectX 11 Pipeline Vienna University of Technology 11

12 DirectX 12/Vulkan/AMD Mantle/Apple Metal Reduce driver overhad Indirect drawing Pipeline state objects Command lists/bundles Partly possible already in OpenGL 4.3+ Other features Conservative rasterization (for culling) New blend modes Order-independent transparency Vienna University of Technology 12

13 Application Generate database (Scene description) Usually only once Load from disk Build acceleration structures (hierarchy, ) Simulation (Animation, AI, Physics) Input event handlers Modify data structures Database traversal Shaders (vertex,geometry,fragment) Vienna University of Technology 13

14 Driver Maintain graphics API state Command interpretation/translation Host commands GPU commands Handle data transfer Memory management Emulation of missing hardware features Usually huge overhead! Significantly reduced in DX10 Vienna University of Technology 14

15 Geometry Stage Command Vertex Processing Tesselation Geometry Shading Primitive Assembly Clipping Perspective Division Culling Vienna University of Technology 15

16 Command Command buffering (!) Command interpretation Unpack and perform format conversion ( Input Assembler ) glloadidentity( ); glmultmatrix( T ); glbegin( GL_TRIANGLE_STRIP ); glcolor3f ( 0.0, 0.5, 0.0 ); glvertex3f( 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 ); glcolor3f ( 0.5, 0.0, 0.0 ); glvertex3f( 1.0, 0.0, 0.0 ); glcolor3f ( 0.0, 0.5, 0.0 ); glvertex3f( 0.0, 1.0, 0.0 ); glcolor3f ( 0.5, 0.0, 0.0 ); glvertex3f( 1.0, 1.0, 0.0 ); glend( ); T Color Transformation matrix Vienna University of Technology 16

17 v e r t e x Vertex Processing Transformation Vertex Processing object eye clip normalized device Modelview Matrix Projection Matrix Perspective Division Viewport Transform window Modelview Projection Modelview Vienna University of Technology 17

18 Vertex Processing Fixed function pipeline: User has to provide matrices, the rest happens automatically Programmable pipeline: User has to provide matrices/other data to shader Shader Code transforms vertex explicitly We can do whatever we want with the vertex! Usually a gl_modelviewprojectionmatrix is provided In GLSL-Shader : gl_position = ftransform(); Vienna University of Technology 18

19 Vertex Processing Lighting Texture coordinate generation and/or transformation Vertex shading for special effects T Object-space triangles Screen-space lit triangles Vienna University of Technology 19

20 Tesselation If just triangles, nothing needs to be done, otherwise: Evaluation of polynomials for curved surfaces Create vertices (tesselation) DirectX11 specifies this in hardware! 3 new shader stages!!! Still not trivial (special algorithms required) Vienna University of Technology 20

21 DirectX11 Tesselation control shader evaluation shader Vienna University of Technology 21

22 Tesselation Example Optimally tesslated! Vienna University of Technology 22

23 Geometry Shader Calculations on a primitive (triangle) Access to neighbor triangles Limited output ( bit values) No general tesselation! Applications: Render to cubemap Shadow volume generation Triangle extension for ray tracing Extrusion operations (fur rendering) Vienna University of Technology 23

24 Rest of Geometry Stage Primitive assembly Geometry shader Clipping (in homogeneous coordinates) Perspective division, viewport transform Culling Vienna University of Technology 24

25 Rasterization Stage Triangle Setup Rasterization Fragment Processing Texture Processing Raster Operations Vienna University of Technology 25

26 Rasterization Setup (per-triangle) Sampling (triangle = {fragments}) Interpolation (interpolate colors and coordinates) Screen-space triangles Fragments Vienna University of Technology 26

27 Rasterization Sampling inclusion determination In tile order improves cache coherency Tile sizes vendor/generation specific Old graphics cards: 16x64 New: 4x4 Smaller tile size favors conditionals in shaders All tile fragments calculated in parallel on modern hardware Vienna University of Technology 27

28 Rasterization Coordinates Fragments represent future pixels y window coordinate 3.0 Pixel center at (2.5, 1.5)! Lower left corner of the window Pixel (2,1) x window coordinate Vienna University of Technology 28

29 Rasterization Rules Separate rule for each primitive Non-ambiguous! Polygons: Pixel center contained in polygon On-edge pixels: only one is rasterized Vienna University of Technology 29

30 Texture Texture transformation and projection E.g., projective textures Texture address calculation (programmable in shader) Texture filtering Fragments Texture Fragments Vienna University of Technology 30

31 Fragment Texture operations (combinations, modulations, animations etc.) Texture Fragments Fragments Textured Fragments Vienna University of Technology 31

32 Raster Tests Ownership Is pixel obscured by other window? Scissor test Only render to scissor rectangle Depth test Test according to z-buffer Alpha test Test according to alpha-value Stencil test Test according to stencil buffer Textured Fragments Framebuffer Pixels Vienna University of Technology 32

33 Raster Operations Blending or compositing Dithering Logical operations Textured Fragments Framebuffer Pixels Vienna University of Technology 33

34 Raster Operations After fragment color calculation ( Output Merger ) Fragment and associated data Pixel Ownership Test Depth Test Scissor Test Stencil Test Alpha Test Depth Buffer Stencil Buffer Blending (RGBA only) Dithering Logicop Frame Buffer Vienna University of Technology 34

35 Display Gamma correction Digital to analog conversion if necessary Framebuffer Pixels Light Vienna University of Technology 35

36 Display Frame buffer pixel format: RGBA vs. index (obsolete) Bits: 16, 32, 128 bit floating point, Double buffered vs. single buffered Quad-buffered for stereo Overlays (extra bit planes) for GUI Auxiliary buffers: alpha, stencil Vienna University of Technology 36

37 Functionality vs. Frequency Geometry processing = per-vertex Transformation and Lighting (T&L) Historically floating point, complex operations Today: fully programmable flow control, texture lookup million vertices per second Fragment processing = per-fragment Blending and texture combination Historically fixed point and limited operations Up to 50 billion fragments ( Gigatexel /sec) Floating point, programmable complex operations Vienna University of Technology 37

38 Computational Requirements Application Command Geometry Rasterization Texture Fragment Display Assume typical non-trivial fixedfunction rendering task 1 light, texture coordinates, projective texture mapping 7 interpolants (z,r,g,b,s,t,q) Trilinear filtering, texture-, color blending, depth buffering Rough estimate: ADD CMP MUL DIV Vertex Fragment Vienna University of Technology 38

39 Communication Requirements Vertex size: Position x,y,z Normal x,y,z Texture coordinate s,t 8 4 = 32 bytes Texture: Color r,g,b,a, 4 bytes Display: Color r,g,b, 3 bytes Fragment size (in frame buffer): Color r,g,b,a Depth z (assume 32 bit) 8 bytes, but goes both ways (because of blending!) Vienna University of Technology 39

40 Communication Requirements 20 Mvert/s GB/s Application Command Geometry Rasterization Vertex Fragment 4 GB/s 5 Gops 150 Gops 1000 Mpix/s Texture Fragment Texture Memory Framebuffer 120 Mpix/s Display 0.36 GB/s Vienna University of Technology GB/s

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