Animation Essentially a question of flipping between many still images, fast enough

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1 33(70) Information Coding / Computer Graphics, ISY, LiTH Animation Essentially a question of flipping between many still images, fast enough 33(70)

2 Animation as a topic Page flipping, double-buffering Sprite animation Movement and posing Collision detection and handling Deformations 34(70)34(70)

3 Double buffering Flicker-free animation 35(70)35(70)

4 The double buffering problem When animating a scene with many objects in real time, it is not just a question of showing images: Erase the entire scene Draw each visible object in new positions This procedure may be visible if done on-screen 36(70)36(70)

5 Single buffered animation Flicker Screen update beam If the beam passes over an area while it is erased, flicker will occur. 37(70)37(70)

6 Solutions 1) Don t erase-and-redraw near the update beam Unreliable. Doesn t work on all screens. 2) Double buffering. Needs more memory. Otherwise easy to do and reliable. 38(70)38(70)

7 Double buffering VRAM VRAM VRAM Buffer 1 Buffer 2 Buffer 1 Buffer 2 Copy Choose buffer Fixed output image buffer Animation with double output buffers Animation with a single output buffer 39(70)39(70)

8 Double buffered animation Tearing Screen update beam Occurs if buffers switch while the screen is being redrawn. Synch with vsync to avoid. 40(70)40(70)

9 Built-in VBL sync (vsync) Modern systems have VBL sync built-in - even mandatory double buffering. You may need to turn vsync off to test maximum frame rate. 41(70)41(70)

10 Double buffering in OpenGL Double buffer Pass GLUT_DOUBLE to glutinitdisplaymode glutswapbuffers(); Repeated redraw glutrepeatingtimer() or timer callback with glutpostredisplay() Update position variables 42(70)42(70)

11 Sprite animation 2D animation based on 2D images. Extremely common in games (Often indie games and/or mobile games.) 43(70)43(70)

12 Sprites in OpenGL Use textured polygons with transparency (Like billboards but without 3D.) Special blitter calls existed in GL2, but they were not guaranteed to be fast 44(70)44(70)

13 Pseudo-3D effects Scaled sprites on background with perspective: Depth cue by size Side-scrolling with parallax scroll: Depth cue by movement Depth due by shadows Distance between object and shadow gives important information 45(70)45(70)

14 Depth from shadows 46(70)46(70)

15 Depth from size 47(70)47(70)

16 Depth from movement Parallax scroll Classic example: Moon Patrol 48(70)48(70)

17 Pseudo-3D effects vs 3D Depth from size = perspective projection Parallax scroll: Comes for free to some extent, but can be emphasized with cameras observing the viewer Depth from shadows: That is why shadows are important in 3D It is needed for full 3D experience. 49(70)49(70)

18 Animation techniques for moving objects Procedural animation Physics-based animation Pre-programmed animation paths 50(70)50(70)

19 Animation paths Use Catmull-Rom splines Predictable, smooth, continuous 51(70)51(70)

20 Character animation Pre-defined poses Key-frame animation Forward kinematics Inverse kinematics Physics based animation Motion capture 52(70)52(70)

21 Key-frame animation Pre-rendered animations Key-frames are designed at suitable intervals Frames between keyframes are interpolated (morphed) Very common method for real-time animation 53(70)53(70)

22 Kinematics Kinematics = movement without forces Forward kinematics: Specify poses by specifying rotation of joints. Easy to implement, but specifying poses is much trial-anderror. Inverse kinematics: Goal-driven posing. Specify where some part should go (i.e. a hand) and calculate necessary rotations 54(70)54(70)

23 Motion capture Extremely common in movies Record by natural visuals only Tracking markers Active sensors on the body Perfect for pre-generated animations. 55(70)55(70)

24 Face animation Hard problem - we are very sensitive to errors Animate by action units (muscle based) or face animation parameters (extreme detail) FAPs part of the MPEG-4 standard. The Candide model 56(70)56(70)

25 Some advanced animation topics Bones and skinning systems Deformations Physics-based animation Quaternions, SLERP Mainly subjects for later courses 57(70)57(70)

26 Particle systems Spectacular effects with little effort Many small moving objects. Explosions Water Fire Snow Rain 58(70)58(70)

27 Particle system Example: Water No randomness - bad 59(70)59(70)

28 Particle system Example: Water 60(70)60(70)

29 Particle system Initial position Initial speed (usually with some randomness)) Movement (usually independent, physically realistic) Termination rule (e.g. hits ground, fades away after some time...) 61(70)61(70)

30 Particle system Movement according to fundamental physics: acceleration = gravity + forces/mass speed = speed + acceleration position = position + speed Euler integration 62(70)62(70)

31 Particle system on GPU CPU-driven particle systems OK up to a certain size Data transfer (new positions) of all particles can be a bottleneck Can the whole particle system be computed on the GPU? 63(70)63(70)

32 Texture based particle systems Use textures to store x, y, z, dx, dy, dz Store as color components (r, g, b) Needs advanced texturing features (render to texture, floating-point buffers) Particles as billboards. Each polygon must identify its particle data. 64(70)64(70)

33 Separate compute kernels for particle systems CUDA, OpenCL, Compute shaders Free choice of data formats Less integration with the OpenGL pipeline 65(70)65(70)

34 Drawing particle systems Large number of very simple models (billboards) Modest demands on GPU, but very large number of function calls Solution: Instancing 66(70)66(70)

35 Instancing Draw a large number of the same model Each instance has an index, the instance number. gldrawarraysinstanced(gl_triangles, 0, 3, 10); draws a triangle 10 times gl_instanceid tells the shader which instance we have. Use for affecting position. 67(70)67(70)

36 Billboard instancing demo One single call to gldrawarraysinstanced Position trivially affected by gl_instance ID #version 150 in vec3 in_position; uniform mat4 mymatrix; uniform float angle; uniform float slope; out vec2 texcoord; void main(void) { mat4 r; float a = angle + gl_instanceid * 0.5; float rr = slope * gl_instanceid * 0.01; r[0] = rr*vec4(cos(a), -sin(a), 0, 0); r[1] = rr*vec4(sin(a), cos(a), 0, 0); r[2] = vec4(0, 0, 1, 0); r[3] = vec4(0, 0, 0, 1); texcoord.s = in_position.x+0.5; texcoord.t = in_position.y+0.5; gl_position = r * mymatrix * vec4(in_position, 1.0); } 68(70)68(70)

37 Instancing complex models Less significant; A more complex model puts enough load on the system to hide the impact of instancing. 69(70)69(70)

38 Basic: Start on CPU Advanced: Go for GPU acceleration Performance is important, but GPU based particle systems are beyond basic course goals. 70(70)70(70)

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