# Illumination & Shading: Part 1

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1 Illumination & Shading: Part 1 Light Sources Empirical Illumination Shading Local vs Global Illumination Lecture 10 Comp 236 Spring 2005 Computer Graphics Jargon: Illumination Models Illumination - the transport luminous flux from light sources between surfaces via direct and indirect paths Lighting - the process of computing the luminous intensity reflected from a specified 3-D point Shading - the process of assigning a colors to a pixels Illumination Models: Empirical - simple formulations that approximate observed phenomenon Physically-based - models based on the actual physics of light2s interactions with matter 2/23/2005 Lecture 11 2 Two Components of Illumination Light Sources: Emittance Spectrum (color) Geometry (position and direction) Directional Attenuation Surface Properties: Reflectance Spectrum (color) Geometry (position, orientation, and micro-structure) Absorption Simplifications used by most computer graphics systems: Only the direct illumination from the emitters to the reflectors of the scene Ignore the geometry of light emitters, and consider only the geometry of reflectors Ambient Light Source Even though an object in a scene is not directly lit it will still be visible. This is because light is reflected indirectly from nearby objects. A simple hack that is commonly used to model this indirect illumination is to use of an ambient light source. Ambient light has no spatial or directional characteristics. The amount of ambient light incident on each object is a constant for all surfaces in the scene. An ambient light can have a color. The amount of ambient light that is reflected by an object is independent of the object s position or orientation. Surface properties are used to determine how much ambient light is reflected.

2 Directional Light Sources Point Light Sources All of the rays from a directional light source have a common direction, and no point of origin. It is as if the light source was infinitely far away from the surface that it is illuminating. Sunlight is an example of an infinite light source. The rays emitted from a point light radially diverge from the source. A point light source is a fair approximation to a local light source such as a light bulb. The direction from a surface to a light source is important for computing the light reflected from the surface. With a directional light source this direction is a constant for every surface. A directional light source can be colored. The direction of the light to each point on a surface changes when a point light source is used. Thus, a normalized vector to the light emitter must be computed for each point that is illuminated. 2/23/2005 Lecture /23/2005 Lecture 11 6 glenable(gl_lighting) Lights in OpenGL # set up light s color gllightfv(gl_light0, GL_AMBIENT, ambientintensity) gllightfv(gl_light0, GL_DIFFUSE, diffuseintensity) gllightfv(gl_light0, GL_SPECULAR, specularintensity) # define a directional light lightdirection = [1, 1, 1, 0] gllightfv(gl_light0, GL_POSITION, lightdirection) glenable(gl_light0) # define a point light lightpoint = [100, 100, 100, 1] gllightfv(gl_light1, GL_POSITION, lightpoint) glenable(gl_light1) Spotlights Other Light Sources Point source whose intensity falls off away from a given direction Requires a color, a point, a direction, parameters that control the rate of fall off Area Light Sources Light source occupies a 2-D area (usually a polygon or disk) Generates soft shadows Extended Light Sources Spherical Light Source Generates soft shadows

3 Ideal Diffuse Reflection First, we will consider a particular type of surface called an ideal diffuse reflector. An ideal diffuse surface is, at the microscopic level a very rough surface. Chalk is a good approximation to an ideal diffuse surface. Because of the microscopic variations in the surface, an incoming ray of light is equally likely to be reflected in any direction over the hemisphere. Lambert s Cosine Law Ideal diffuse reflectors reflect light according to Lambert s cosine law, (there are sometimes called Lambertian reflectors). Lambert s law states that the reflected energy from a small surface area in a particular direction is proportional to cosine of the angle between that direction and the surface normal. Lambert s law determines how much of the incoming light energy is reflected. Remember that the amount energy that is reflected in any one direction is constant in this model. In other words the reflected intensity is independent of the viewing direction. The intensity does however depend on the light source s orientation relative to the surface, and it is this property that is governed by Lambert s law. 2/23/2005 Lecture /23/2005 Lecture Computing Diffuse Reflection The angle between the surface normal and the incoming light ray is called the angle of incidence. The reflected brightness can be expressed in terms of this angle. Diffuse Lighting Examples We need only consider angles from 0 to 90 degrees. Greater angles (where the dot product is negative) are blocked by the surface, and the reflected energy is 0. Below are several examples of a spherical diffuse reflector with a varying lighting angles. The I ligh term represents the intensity of the incoming light at the particular wavelength (the wavelength determines the light2s color). The k d term represents the diffuse reflectivity of the surface at that wavelength. In practice we use vector analysis to compute cosine term indirectly. If both the normal vector and the incoming light vector are normalized (unit length) then diffuse shading can be computed as follows: Why do you think spheres are used as examples when shading?

4 Specular Reflection A second surface type is called a specular reflector. When we look at a shiny surface, such as polished metal or a glossy car finish, we see a highlight, or bright spot. Where this bright spot appears on the surface is a function of where the surface is seen from. This type of reflectance is view dependent. At the microscopic level a specular reflecting surface is very smooth, and usually these microscopic surface elements are oriented in the same direction as the surface itself. Specular reflection is merely the mirror reflection of the light source in a surface. Thus it should come as no surprise that it is viewer dependent, since if you stood in front of a mirror and placed your finger over the reflection of a light, you would expect that you could reposition your head to look around your finger and see the light again. An ideal mirror is a purely specular reflector. In order to model specular reflection we need to understand the physics of reflection. Snell s Law Reflection behaves according to Snell s law: The incoming ray, the surface normal, and the reflected ray all lie in a common plane. The angle that the reflected ray forms with the surface normal is determined by the angle that the incoming ray forms with the surface normal, and the relative speeds of light of the mediums in which the incident and reflected rays propogate according to the following expression. (Note: n l and n r are the indices of refraction) Reflection is a special case of Snell s Law where the incident light s medium and the reflected rays medium is the same. Thus we can simplify the expression to: θl = θ r 2/23/2005 Lecture /23/2005 Lecture Non-ideal Reflectors Snell s law, however, applies only to ideal mirror reflectors. Real materials, other than mirrors and chrome tend to deviate significantly from ideal reflectors. At this point we will introduce an empirical model that is consistent with our experience, at least to a crude approximation. In general, we expect most of the reflected light to travel in the direction of the ideal ray. However, because of microscopic surface variations we might expect some of the light to be reflected just slightly offset from the ideal reflected ray. As we move farther and farther, in the angular sense, from the reflected ray we expect to see less light reflected. Phong Illumination One function that approximates this fall off is called the Phong Illumination model. This model has no physical basis, yet it is one of the most commonly used illumination models in computer graphics. The cos φ term is maximum when the surface is viewed from the mirror direction and falls off to 0 when viewed at 90 degrees away from it. The n shiny term controls the rate of this fall off.

5 Effect of n shiney The diagram below shows the how the Phong reflectance drops off based on the viewers angle from the reflected ray for various values of n shiny. Computing Phong Illumination The cos term of Phong s specular illumination using the following relationship. n shiney specular = ksilight ) The V vector is the unit vector in the direction of the viewer and the R vector is the mirror reflectance direction. The vector R can be computed from the incoming light direction and the surface normal as shown below. (Vˆ The diagram below illustrates this relationship. I Rˆ Rˆ = (2(Nˆ Lˆ))Nˆ Lˆ Rˆ + Lˆ = (2(Nˆ Lˆ))Nˆ Lˆ Nˆ Rˆ 2/23/2005 Lecture /23/2005 Lecture Blinn & Torrance Variation Jim Blinn introduced another approach for computing Phong-like illumination based on the work of Ken Torrance. His illumination function uses the following equation: n I shiney specular = ksilight (Nˆ Ĥ) In this equation the angle of specular dispersion is computed by how far the surface2s normal is from a vector bisecting the incoming light direction and the viewing direction. Nˆ Vˆ Ĥ Lˆ + Vˆ Lˆ Ĥ = Lˆ + Vˆ Phong Examples The following spheres illustrate specular reflections as the direction of the light source and the coefficient of shininess is varied. On your own you should consider how this approach and the previous one differ.

6 Putting it all together Our final empirical illumination model is: I total = k I a ambient Notes: The Phong Lighting model Once per light Once per color component Reflectance coefficients, k a, k d, and k s may or may not vary with the color component If they do, you need to be careful. + lights I i i= 1 nshiney ( k (Nˆ Lˆ) + k (Nˆ Ĥ) ) d s OpenGL Surface Properties ambientcolor = [0.7, 0.2, 0.7, 1.0] diffusecolor = [0.7, 0.2, 0.7, 1.0] specularcolor = [1, 1, 1, 1] nshininess = [100, 0, 0, 0] glmaterialfv(gl_front, GL_AMBIENT, ambientcolor) glmaterialfv(gl_front, GL_DIFFUSE, diffusecolor) glmaterialfv(gl_front, GL_SPECULAR, specularcolor) glmaterialfv(gl_front, GL_SHININESS, nshininess) 2/23/2005 Lecture /23/2005 Lecture Where do we Illuminate? To this point we have discussed how to compute an illumination model at a point on a surface. But, at which points on the surface is the illumination model applied? Where and how often it is applied has a noticeable effect on the result. Flat Shading The simplest shading method applies only one illumination calculation for each primitive. This technique is called constant or flat shading. It is often used on polygonal primitives. Illuminating can be a costly process involving the computation of and normalizing of vectors to multiple light sources and the viewer. For models defined by collections of polygonal facets or triangles: Each facet has a common surface normal If the light is directional then the diffuse contribution is constant across the facet If the eye is infinitely far away and the light is directional then the specular contribution is constant across the facet Issues: For point light sources the direction to the light source varies over the facet For specular reflections the direction to the eye varies over the facet None the less, often illumination is computed for only a single point on the facet. Which one? Usually the centroid. For a convex facet the centriod is given as follows: vertices 1 centroid = p& i vertices i= 1

8 Local Illumination Global Illumination Local illumination models compute the colors of points on surfaces by considering local properties only the position of the point the properties of the surface to which it belongs the properties of any light sources that affect it No other objects in the scene are considered neither as light blockers nor as reflectors Typical of immediate-mode renders, such as OpenGL In the real world, light takes indirect paths Light reflects off of other materials (possibly multiple objects) Light is blocked by other objects Light can be scattered Light can be focused Light can bend Harder to model At each point we must consider not only every light source, but and other point that might have reflected light toward it 2/23/2005 Lecture /23/2005 Lecture Next Time More advanced illumination

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