# CS4620/5620: Lecture 14 Pipeline

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1 CS4620/5620: Lecture 14 Pipeline 1 Rasterizing triangles Summary 1! evaluation of linear functions on pixel grid 2! functions defined by parameter values at vertices 3! using extra parameters to determine fragment set 2

2 Barycentric coordinates A coordinate system for triangles [Shirley 2000] 3 Clipping to the triangle Interpolate three barycentric coordinates across the plane each barycentric coord is 1 at one vert. and 0 at the other two lies between 0 and 1 inside the triangle Output fragments only when all three are > 0. 4

3 Another way: Edge equations In plane, triangle is the intersection of 3 half spaces 5 Walking edge equations We need to update values of the three edge equations with single-pixel steps in x and y Edge equation already in form of dot product components of vector are the increments 6

4 Rest of pipeline 7 Clipping Rasterizer tends to assume triangles are on screen particularly problematic to have triangles crossing the plane z = 0 Why? 8

5 n P = 0 n n + f fn Clipping Eliminate geometry outside frustum How? Clip to world space frustum Clip to clip coordinates (before divide) Both fine, often the latter After projection, before perspective divide clip against the planes x, y, z = 1, 1 (6 planes) primitive operation: clip triangle against axisaligned plane 10

6 Clipping a triangle against a plane 4 cases, based on sidedness of vertices all in (keep) all out (discard) one in, two out (one clipped triangle) two in, one out (two clipped triangles) Intersect the edge line with the plane x = 0, use y intercept (for example) 11 Pipeline of transformations Standard sequence of transforms object space camera space screen space modeling transformation camera transformation projection transformation viewport transformation world space canonical view volume 12

7 Pipeline overview you are here APPLICATION COMMAND STREAM 3D transformations; shading VERTEX PROCESSING TRANSFORMED GEOMETRY conversion of primitives to pixels RASTERIZATION FRAGMENTS blending, compositing, shading FRAGMENT PROCESSING user sees this FRAMEBUFFER IMAGE DISPLAY 13 Hidden surface elimination We have discussed how to map primitives to image space projection and perspective are depth cues occlusion is another very important cue 14

8 Painter s algorithm Simplest way to do hidden surfaces Draw from back to front, use overwriting in framebuffer 15 Painter s algorithm Useful when a valid order is easy to come by Compatible with alpha blending [Foley et al.] 16

9 Painter s algorithm Amounts to a topological sort of the graph of occlusions that is, an edge from A to B means A sometimes occludes B any sort is valid BA... B...A... A D D if there are cycles B E there is no sort C F B F A E [Foley et al.] Works when valid sort is easy to come by C 17 The z buffer In many (most) applications maintaining a z sort is too expensive changes all the time as the view changes many data structures exist, but complex Solution: draw in any order, keep track of closest surface allocate extra channel per pixel to keep track of closest depth so far when drawing, compare object s depth to current closest depth and discard if greater History: memory use was a concern, not anymore. 18

10 The z buffer [Foley et al.] Memory-intensive brute force approach that works and has become the standard 19 Precision in z buffer The precision is distributed between the near and far clipping planes this is why these planes have to exist also why you can t always just set them to very small and very large distances Generally use z (not world z) in z buffer More about correct interpolation for z in texturing! 20

11 Back face culling For closed shapes you will never see the inside therefore only draw surfaces that face the camera implement by checking n. v n v n v 21

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