Interactive Computer Graphics A TOPDOWN APPROACH WITH SHADERBASED OPENGL


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1 International Edition Interactive Computer Graphics A TOPDOWN APPROACH WITH SHADERBASED OPENGL Sixth Edition Edward Angel Dave Shreiner
2
3 Interactive Computer Graphics: A TopDown Approach with ShaderBased OpenGL  PDF  PDF  PDF Table of Contents Cover Title Page Contents Preface CHAPTER 1 GRAPHICS SYSTEMS AND MODELS 1.1 Applications of Computer Graphics Display of Information Design Simulation and Animation User Interfaces 1.2 A Graphics System Pixels and the Frame Buffer The CPU and the GPU Output Devices Input Devices Physical Input Devices Logical Devices Input Modes 1.3 Images: Physical and Synthetic Objects and Viewers Light and Images Imaging Models 1.4 Imaging Systems The Pinhole Camera The Human Visual System 1.5 The SyntheticCamera Model 1.6 The Programmers Interface The PenPlotter Model ThreeDimensional APIs A Sequence of Images The ModelingRendering Paradigm 1.7 Graphics Architectures Display Processors Pipeline Architectures The Graphics Pipeline Vertex Processing Clipping and Primitive Assembly
4 1.7.6 Rasterization Fragment Processing 1.8 Programmable Pipelines 1.9 Performance Characteristics CHAPTER 2 GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING 2.1 The Sierpinski Gasket 2.2 Programming TwoDimensional Applications 2.3 The OpenGL Application Programming Interface Graphics Functions The Graphics Pipeline and State Machines The OpenGL Interface Coordinate Systems 2.4 Primitives and Attributes Polygon Basics Polygons in OpenGL Approximating a Sphere Triangulation Text Curved Objects Attributes 2.5 Color RGB Color Indexed Color Setting of Color Attributes 2.6 Viewing The Orthographic View TwoDimensional Viewing 2.7 Control Functions Interaction with the Window System Aspect Ratio and Viewports The main, display, and init Functions Program Structure 2.8 The Gasket Program Rendering the Points The Vertex Shader The Fragment Shader Combining the Parts
5 2.8.5 The initshader Function 2.9 Polygons and Recursion 2.10 The ThreeDimensional Gasket Use of ThreeDimensional Points Use of Polygons in Three Dimensions HiddenSurface Removal 2.11 Adding Interaction Using the Pointing Device Window Events Keyboard Events The Idle Callback Double Buffering Window Management 2.12 Menus CHAPTER 3 GEOMETRIC OBJECTS AND TRANSFORMATIONS 3.1 Scalars, Points, and Vectors Geometric Objects CoordinateFree Geometry The Mathematical View: Vector and Affine Spaces The Computer Science View Geometric ADTs Lines Affine Sums Convexity Dot and Cross Products Planes 3.2 ThreeDimensional Primitives 3.3 Coordinate Systems and Frames Representations and NTuples Change of Coordinate Systems Example Change of Representation Homogeneous Coordinates Example Change in Frames Working with Representations 3.4 Frames in OpenGL 3.5 Matrix and Vector Classes 3.6 Modeling a Colored Cube
6 3.6.1 Modeling the Faces Inward and OutwardPointing Faces Data Structures for Object Representation The Color Cube Interpolation Displaying the Cube 3.7 Affine Transformations 3.8 Translation, Rotation, and Scaling Translation Rotation Scaling 3.9 Transformations in Homogeneous Coordinates Translation Scaling Rotation Shear 3.10 Concatenation of Transformations Rotation About a Fixed Point General Rotation The Instance Transformation Rotation About an Arbitrary Axis 3.11 Transformation Matrices in OpenGL Current Transformation Matrices Rotation, Translation, and Scaling Rotation About a Fixed Point Order of Transformations 3.12 Spinning of the Cube Updating in the Display Callback Uniform Variables 3.13 Interfaces to ThreeDimensional Applications Using Areas of the Screen A Virtual Trackball Smooth Rotations Incremental Rotation 3.14 Quaternions Complex Numbers and Quaternions Quaternions and Rotation CHAPTER 4 VIEWING
7 4.1 Classical and Computer Viewing Classical Viewing Orthographic Projections Axonometric Projections Oblique Projections Perspective Viewing 4.2 Viewing with a Computer 4.3 Positioning of the Camera Positioning of the Camera Frame Two Viewing APIs The LookAt Function Other Viewing APIs 4.4 Parallel Projections Orthogonal Projections Parallel Viewing with OpenGL Projection Normalization OrthogonalProjection Matrices Oblique Projections An Interactive Viewer 4.5 Perspective Projections Simple Perspective Projections 4.6 Perspective Projections with OpenGL Perspective Functions 4.7 PerspectiveProjection Matrices Perspective Normalization OpenGL Perspective Transformations Perspective Example 4.8 HiddenSurface Removal Culling 4.9 Displaying Meshes Displaying Meshes as a Surface Polygon Offset Walking Through a Scene 4.10 Projections and Shadows CHAPTER 5 LIGHTING AND SHADING 5.1 Light and Matter 5.2 Light Sources Table of Contents
8 5.2.1 Color Sources Ambient Light Point Sources Spotlights Distant Light Sources 5.3 The Phong Reflection Model Ambient Reflection Diffuse Reflection Specular Reflection The Modified Phong Model 5.4 Computation of Vectors Normal Vectors Angle of Reflection 5.5 Polygonal Shading Flat Shading Smooth and Gouraud Shading Phong Shading 5.6 Approximation of a Sphere by Recursive Subdivision 5.7 Specifying Lighting Parameters Light Sources Materials 5.8 Implementing a Lighting Model Applying the Lighting Model in the Application Efficiency Lighting in the Vertex Shader 5.9 Shading of the Sphere Model 5.10 PerFragment Lighting Nonphotorealistic Shading 5.11 Global Illumination CHAPTER 6 FROM VERTICES TO FRAGMENTS 6.1 Basic Implementation Strategies 6.2 Four Major Tasks Modeling Geometry Processing Rasterization Fragment Processing 6.3 Clipping
9 6.4 LineSegment Clipping CohenSutherland Clipping LiangBarsky Clipping 6.5 Polygon Clipping 6.6 Clipping of Other Primitives Bounding Boxes and Volumes Curves, Surfaces, and Text Clipping in the Frame Buffer 6.7 Clipping in Three Dimensions 6.8 Rasterization 6.9 Bresenhams Algorithm 6.10 Polygon Rasterization InsideOutside Testing OpenGL and Concave Polygons Fill and Sort Flood Fill Singularities 6.11 HiddenSurface Removal ObjectSpace and ImageSpace Approaches Sorting and HiddenSurface Removal Scanline Algorithms BackFace Removal The zbuffer Algorithm Scan Conversion with the zbuffe Depth Sort and the Painters Algorithm 6.12 Antialiasing 6.13 Display Considerations Color Systems The Color Matrix Gamma Correction Dithering and Halftoning CHAPTER 7 DISCRETE TECHNIQUES 7.1 Buffers 7.2 Digital Images 7.3 Writing into Buffers Writing Modes Writing with XOR
10 7.4 Mapping Methods 7.5 Texture Mapping TwoDimensional Texture Mapping 7.6 Texture Mapping in OpenGL TwoDimensional Texture Mapping Texture Objects The Texture Array Texture Coordinates and Samplers Texture Sampling Working with Texture Coordinates Multitexturing 7.7 Texture Generation 7.8 Environment Maps 7.9 Reflection Map Example 7.10 Bump Mapping Finding Bump Maps Bump Map Example 7.11 Compositing Techniques Opacity and Blending Image Compositing Blending and Compositing in OpenGL Antialiasing Revisited BacktoFront and FronttoBack Rendering Scene Antialiasing and Multisampling Image Processing Other Multipass Methods 7.12 Sampling and Aliasing Sampling Theory Reconstruction Quantization CHAPTER 8 MODELING AND HIERARCHY 8.1 Symbols and Instances 8.2 Hierarchical Models 8.3 A Robot Arm 8.4 Trees and Traversal A StackBased Traversal 8.5 Use of Tree Data Structures
11 8.6 Animation 8.7 Graphical Objects Methods, Attributes, and Messages A Cube Object Implementing the Cube Object Objects and Hierarchy Geometric Objects 8.8 Scene Graphs 8.9 Open Scene Graph 8.10 Graphics and the Internet Hypermedia and HTML Java and Applets Interactive Graphics and the Web WebGL 8.11 Other Tree Structures CSG Trees BSP Trees Quadtrees and Octrees CHAPTER 9 PROCEDURAL METHODS 9.1 Algorithmic Models 9.2 Physically Based Models and Particle Systems 9.3 Newtonian Particles Independent Particles Spring Forces Attractive and Repulsive Forces 9.4 Solving Particle Systems 9.5 Constraints Collisions Soft Constraints 9.6 A Simple Particle System Displaying the Particles Updating Particle Positions Collisions Forces Flocking 9.7 LanguageBased Models 9.8 Recursive Methods and Fractals
12 9.8.1 Rulers and Length Fractal Dimension Midpoint Division and Brownian Motion Fractal Mountains The Mandelbrot Set 9.9 Procedural Noise CHAPTER 10 CURVES AND SURFACES 10.1 Representation of Curves and Surfaces Explicit Representation Implicit Representations Parametric Form Parametric Polynomial Curves Parametric Polynomial Surfaces 10.2 Design Criteria 10.3 Parametric Cubic Polynomial Curves 10.4 Interpolation Blending Functions The Cubic Interpolating Patch 10.5 Hermite Curves and Surfaces The Hermite Form Geometric and Parametric Continuity 10.6 Bezier Curves and Surfaces Bezier Curves Bezier Surface Patches 10.7 Cubic BSplines The Cubic BSpline Curve BSplines and Basis Spline Surfaces 10.8 General BSplines Recursively Defined BSplines Uniform Splines Nonuniform BSplines NURBS CatmullRom Splines 10.9 Rendering Curves and Surfaces Polynomial Evaluation Methods Recursive Subdivision of Be zier Polynomials
13 Rendering Other Polynomial Curves by Subdivision Subdivision of Be zier Surfaces The Utah Teapot Algebraic Surfaces Quadrics Rendering of Surfaces by Ray Casting Subdivision Curves and Surfaces Mesh Subdivision Mesh Generation from Data Height Fields Revisited Delaunay Triangulation Point Clouds CHAPTER 11 ADVANCED RENDERING 11.1 Going Beyond Pipeline Rendering 11.2 Ray Tracing 11.3 Building a Simple Ray Tracer Recursive Ray Tracing Calculating Intersections RayTracing Variations 11.4 The Rendering Equation 11.5 Radiosity The Radiosity Equation Solving the Radiosity Equation Computing Form Factors Carrying Out Radiosity 11.6 RenderMan 11.7 Parallel Rendering SortMiddle Rendering SortLast Rendering SortFirst Rendering 11.8 Volume Rendering Volumetric Data Sets Visualization of Implicit Functions 11.9 Isosurfaces and Marching Cubes Mesh Simplification Direct Volume Rendering
14 Assignment of Color and Opacity Splatting Volume Ray Tracing Texture Mapping of Volumes ImageBased Rendering A Simple Example APPENDIX A SAMPLE PROGRAMS A.1 Shader Initialization Function A.1.1 Application Code A.2 Sierpinski Gasket Program A.2.1 Application Code A.2.2 Vertex Shader A.2.3 Fragment Shader A.3 Recursive Generation of Sierpinski Gasket A.3.1 Application Code A.3.2 Vertex Shader A.3.3 Fragment Shader A.4 Rotating Cube with Rotation in Shader A.4.1 Application Code A.4.2 Vertex Shader A.4.3 Fragment Shader A.5 Perspective Projection A.5.1 Application Code A.5.2 Vertex Shader A.5.3 Fragment Shader A.6 Rotating Shaded Cube A.6.1 Application Code A.6.2 Vertex Shader A.6.3 Fragment Shader A.7 PerFragment Lighting of Sphere Model A.7.1 Application Code A.7.2 Vertex Shader A.7.3 Fragment Shader A.8 Rotating Cube with Texture A.8.1 Application Code A.8.2 Vertex Shader A.8.3 Fragment Shader
15 A.9 Figure with Tree Traversal A.9.1 Application Code A.9.2 Vertex Shader A.9.3 Fragment Shader A.10 Teapot Renderer A.10.1 Application Code A.10.2 Vertex Shader A.10.3 Fragment Shader APPENDIX B SPACES B.1 Scalars B.2 Vector Spaces B.3 Affine Spaces B.4 Euclidean Spaces B.5 Projections B.6 GramSchmidt Orthogonalization APPENDIX C MATRICES C.1 Definitions C.2 Matrix Operations C.3 Row and Column Matrices C.4 Rank C.5 Change of Representation C.6 The Cross Product C.7 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors C.8 Vector and Matrix Classes APPENDIX D SYNOPSIS OF OPENGL FUNCTIONS D.1 Initialization and Window Functions D.2 Vertex Buffer Objects D.3 Interaction D.4 Setting Attributes and Enabling Features D.5 Texture and Image Functions D.6 State and Buffer Manipulation D.7 Query Functions D.8 GLSL Functions References
16 OpenGL Function Index Subject Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
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