# Pipeline and Rasterization. COMP770 Fall 2011

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1 Pipeline and Rasterization COMP770 Fall

2 The graphics pipeline The standard approach to object-order graphics Many versions exist software, e.g. Pixar s REYES architecture many options for quality and flexibility hardware, e.g. graphics cards in PCs amazing performance: millions of triangles per frame We ll focus on an abstract version of hardware pipeline Pipeline because of the many stages very parallelizable leads to remarkable performance of graphics cards (many times the flops of the CPU at ~1/5 the clock speed) 2

3 Pipeline overview you are here APPLICATION COMMAND STREAM 3D transformations; shading VERTEX PROCESSING TRANSFORMED GEOMETRY conversion of primitives to pixels RASTERIZATION FRAGMENTS blending, compositing, shading FRAGMENT PROCESSING user sees this FRAMEBUFFER IMAGE DISPLAY 3

4 Primitives Points Line segments and chains of connected line segments Triangles And that s all! Curves? Approximate them with chains of line segments Polygons? Break them up into triangles Curved regions? Approximate them with triangles Trend has been toward minimal primitives simple, uniform, repetitive: good for parallelism 4

5 Rasterization First job: enumerate the pixels covered by a primitive simple, aliased definition: pixels whose centers fall inside Second job: interpolate values across the primitive e.g. colors computed at vertices e.g. normals at vertices will see applications later on 5

6 Rasterizing lines Define line as a rectangle Specify by two endpoints Ideal image: black inside, white outside 6

7 Point sampling Approximate rectangle by drawing all pixels whose centers fall within the line Problem: sometimes turns on adjacent pixels 7

8 Point sampling in action 8

9 Bresenham lines (midpoint alg.) Point sampling unit width rectangle leads to uneven line width Define line width parallel to pixel grid That is, turn on the single nearest pixel in each column Note that 45º lines are now thinner 9

10 Midpoint algorithm in action 10

11 Algorithms for drawing lines line equation: y = b + m x Simple algorithm: evaluate line equation per column W.l.o.g. x0 < x1; 0 m 1 for x = ceil(x0) to floor(x1)! y = b + m*x! output(x, round(y)) y = x 11

12 Optimizing line drawing Multiplying and rounding is slow At each pixel the only options are E and NE d = m(x + 1) + b y d > 0.5 decides between E and NE 12

13 Optimizing line drawing d = m(x + 1) + b y Only need to update d for integer steps in x and y Do that with addition Known as DDA (digital differential analyzer) 13

14 Midpoint line algorithm x = ceil(x0)! y = round(m*x + b)! d = m*(x + 1) + b y! while x < floor(x1)! if d > 0.5! y += 1! d = 1! x += 1! d += m! output(x, y) 14

15 Linear interpolation We often attach attributes to vertices e.g. computed diffuse color of a hair being drawn using lines want color to vary smoothly along a chain of line segments Recall basic definition 1D: f(x) = (1 α) y 0 + α y 1 where α = (x x 0 ) / (x 1 x 0 ) In the 2D case of a line segment, alpha is just the fraction of the distance from (x 0, y 0 ) to (x 1, y 1 ) 15

16 Linear interpolation Pixels are not exactly on the line Define 2D function by projection on line this is linear in 2D therefore can use DDA to interpolate 16

17 Alternate interpretation We are updating d and α as we step from pixel to pixel d tells us how far from the line we are α tells us how far along the line we are So d and α are coordinates in a coordinate system oriented to the line 17

18 Alternate interpretation View loop as visiting all pixels the line passes through Interpolate d and α for each pixel Only output frag. if pixel is in band This makes linear interpolation the primary operation 18

19 Pixel-walk line rasterization x = ceil(x0)! y = round(m*x + b)! d = m*x + b y! while x < floor(x1)! if d > 0.5! y += 1; d = 1;! else! x += 1; d += m;! if 0.5 < d 0.5! output(x, y) 19

20 Rasterizing triangles The most common case in most applications with good antialiasing can be the only case some systems render a line as two skinny triangles Triangle represented by three vertices Simple way to think of algorithm follows the pixel-walk interpretation of line rasterization walk from pixel to pixel over (at least) the polygon s area evaluate linear functions as you go use those functions to decide which pixels are inside 20

21 Rasterizing triangles Input: three 2D points (the triangle s vertices in pixel space) (x 0, y 0 ); (x 1, y 1 ); (x 2, y 2 ) parameter values at each vertex q 00,, q 0n ; q 10,, q 1n ; q 20,, q 2n Output: a list of fragments, each with the integer pixel coordinates (x, y) interpolated parameter values q 0,, q n 21

22 Rasterizing triangles Summary 1 evaluation of linear functions on pixel grid 2 functions defined by parameter values at vertices 3 using extra parameters to determine fragment set 22

23 Incremental linear evaluation A linear (affine, really) function on the plane is: Linear functions are efficient to evaluate on a grid: 23

24 Incremental linear evaluation lineval(xl, xh, yl, yh, cx, cy, ck) { // setup qrow = cx*xl + cy*yl + ck; // traversal for y = yl to yh { qpix = qrow; for x = xl to xh { output(x, y, qpix); qpix += cx; } qrow += cy; } } c x =.005; c y =.005; c k = 0 (image size 100x100) 24

25 Rasterizing triangles Summary 1 evaluation of linear functions on pixel grid 2 functions defined by parameter values at vertices 3 using extra parameters to determine fragment set 25

26 Defining parameter functions To interpolate parameters across a triangle we need to find the c x, c y, and c k that define the (unique) linear function that matches the given values at all 3 vertices this is 3 constraints on 3 unknown coefficients: (each states that the function agrees with the given value at one vertex) leading to a 3x3 matrix equation for the coefficients: (singular iff triangle is degenerate) 26

27 Defining parameter functions More efficient version: shift origin to (x 0, y 0 ) now this is a 2x2 linear system (since q 0 falls out): solve using Cramer s rule (see Shirley): 27

28 Defining parameter functions lininterp(xl, xh, yl, yh, x0, y0, q0, x1, y1, q1, x2, y2, q2) { // setup det = (x1-x0)*(y2-y0) - (x2-x0)*(y1-y0); cx = ((q1-q0)*(y2-y0) - (q2-q0)*(y1-y0)) / det; cy = ((q2-q0)*(x1-x0) - (q1-q0)*(x2-x0)) / det; qrow = cx*(xl-x0) + cy*(yl-y0) + q0; // traversal (same as before) for y = yl to yh { qpix = qrow; for x = xl to xh { output(x, y, qpix); qpix += cx; } qrow += cy; } } q = 0 q = 1 q = 0 28

29 Interpolating several parameters lininterp(xl, xh, yl, yh, n, x0, y0, q0[], x1, y1, q1[], x2, y2, q2[]) { // setup for k = 0 to n-1 // compute cx[k], cy[k], qrow[k] // from q0[k], q1[k], q2[k] // traversal for y = yl to yh { for k = 1 to n, qpix[k] = qrow[k]; for x = xl to xh { output(x, y, qpix); for k = 1 to n, qpix[k] += cx[k]; } for k = 1 to n, qrow[k] += cy[k]; } } 29

30 Rasterizing triangles Summary 1 evaluation of linear functions on pixel grid 2 functions defined by parameter values at vertices 3 using extra parameters to determine fragment set 30

31 Clipping to the triangle Interpolate three barycentric coordinates across the plane each barycentric coord is 1 at one vert. and 0 at the other two Output fragments only when all three are > 0. 31

32 Barycentric coordinates A coordinate system for triangles algebraic viewpoint: geometric viewpoint (areas): Triangle interior test: [Shirley 2000] 32

33 Barycentric coordinates A coordinate system for triangles geometric viewpoint: distances linear viewpoint: basis of edges 33

34 Barycentric coordinates Linear viewpoint: basis for the plane [Shirley 2000] in this view, the triangle interior test is just 34

35 Edge equations In plane, triangle is the intersection of 3 half spaces 35

36 Walking edge equations We need to update values of the three edge equations with single-pixel steps in x and y Edge equation already in form of dot product components of vector are the increments 36

37 Pixel-walk (Pineda) rasterization Conservatively visit a superset of the pixels you want Interpolate linear functions Use those functions to determine when to emit a fragment 37

38 Rasterizing triangles Exercise caution with rounding and arbitrary decisions need to visit these pixels once but it s important not to visit them twice! 38

39 Clipping Rasterizer tends to assume triangles are on screen particularly problematic to have triangles crossing the plane z = 0 After projection, before perspective divide clip against the planes x, y, z = 1, 1 (6 planes) primitive operation: clip triangle against axis-aligned plane 39

40 Clipping a triangle against a plane 4 cases, based on sidedness of vertices all in (keep) all out (discard) one in, two out (one clipped triangle) two in, one out (two clipped triangles) 40

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