# CS 354R: Computer Game Technology

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1 CS 354R: Computer Game Technology Texture and Environment Maps Fall 2018

2 Texture Mapping Problem: colors, normals, etc. are only specified at vertices How do we add detail between vertices without incurring penalty for higher poly count? Solution: Specify details in an image (the texture) and specify how to apply the image to the geometry (the map) Works for shading parameters other than color 2

3 Basic Mapping Textures live in a 2D space Parameterize points in the texture with 2 coordinates: (s, t) Define the mapping from (x, y, z) in world space to (s, t) in texture space For polygons: Specify (s, t) coordinates at vertices Interpolate (s, t) for other points 3

4 Basic Texturing Concepts and Terms Vertices are coordinates that define geometry Texture coordinates specified at vertices and interpolated across triangles Texture values for points mapping outside the texture image can be generated in various ways: REPEAT, CLAMP, etc Width and height of texture images is often constrained Powers of two Sometimes required to be a square Fragments are single pixels (or sub-pixels) that must be lit and rasterized 4

5 Aliasing Artifacts Texture sampling (aliasing) creates visual artifacts Mipmaps and other filtering techniques are the solution 5

6 Multitexturing Multitexturing hardware provides pipeline of texture units to work on fragments Apply multiple textures to a primitive in the same pass Example 1. Apply color map 2. Modify illumination to simulate bumps 3. Modify opacity Note that this is not the same as a multi-pass rendering done in a single pass! 6

7 Pixel Shaders Pixel shaders operate on fragments in parallel (Vertex shaders operate on vertices in parallel) Can compute texture coordinates, do general texture lookups, modify color/depth/opacity, and some other functions More general than multi-texturing and very powerful Shader languages include GLSL, HLSL and Cg We won t go into shading for this course, but here is a basic tutorial: 7

8 Textures in Games Modern game engines provide a lot of texture support Automatic texture atlasing High level of control for importing and editing Varying resolutions to support hardware performance Artist tools often included for texture management Design texture images Specify how to apply to object Profiling to maintain good memory and performance bounds 8

9 Texture Atlasing A packed set of textures (or sprites) 2D Example: a sprite sheet 9

10 3D Example: Texture Tool 10

11 Packing Textures Problem: Limits on texture width/height make it inefficient to store many, high-quality textures Solution: Artists pack the textures for many objects into one image The texture coordinates for a given object may only index into a small part of the image Care must be taken at sub-image boundary to achieve correct blending Mipmapping is restricted Best for objects that are at a known resolution 11

12 Combining Textures 12

13 A Larger Example 13

14 Animating Texture The texture matrix can transform the texture in memory Less expensive than loading multiple textures onto the graphics card Allows texture to slide, rotate, and stretch/shrink over surface If the texture matrix is changed from frame to frame, the texture will appear to move on the object Useful for things like flame, swirling vortices, or pulsing entrances 14

15 Projective Texturing The texture can be projected onto the scene as if from a slide projector Equate texture coordinates with world coordinates Wherever a world point appears in the projector s view, it picks up the texture at that point Useful for other texture projections such as shadow mapping Original paper: [ Projective_Texture_Mapping.html] 15

16 What Do Textures Represent? The graphics hardware doesn t know what is in a texture It applies a set of operations using values it finds in the texture, the existing value of the fragment (pixel), and maybe another color The programmer decides what these operations are Examples: Scalar luminance data (multiplies the fragment color) Alpha data (multiplies the fragment s alpha channel) Vector data (modifies the surface normals) Depth data (determines distance from light source for shadow mapping) 16

17 Textures In Digital Art Assets designed for modern graphics pipeline Low-poly, high-texture Multiple maps for multiple effects Example: artwork/2yvkb (Arnab Roy, Maya) 17

18 Question How can we capture reflection in a local shading model that doesn t consider neighboring objects? 18

19 Environment Mapping Environment mapping produces reflections on shiny objects Texture is transferred in the direction of the reflected ray from the environment map onto the object Environment Map Viewer Reflected ray Object 19

20 Environment Mapping cont d Reflected ray: R = I - 2(N I)N (NVidia CG Tutorial) 20

21 Example 21

22 Mapping Approximations We can t store a separate map for each point, so one map is used with the eye at the center of the object Introduces distortions in the reflection Distortions minimized for a small object in a large room Object will not reflect itself Mapping can be computed at each pixel or only at the vertices 22

23 Types of Environment Maps Environment map may take one of several forms: Cubic mapping Spherical mapping (two variants) Parabolic mapping Describes the shape of the surface on which the map resides Determines how the map is generated and how it is indexed Issues in choosing a map: Memory Computation Accuracy 23

24 Cube Mapping The map resides on the surfaces of a cube around the object Typically align the faces of the cube with the coordinate axes Can make map rendering arbitrarily complex as its possible to do off-line For each face of the cube either: Render the world from the center of the object with the cube face as the image plane Or take 6 photos of a real environment with a camera in the object s position 24

25 Cube Map Example 25

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