# MANHATTAN HUNTER SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL GEOMETRY CURRICULUM

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1 COORDINATE Geometry Plotting points on the coordinate plane. Using the Distance Formula: Investigate, and apply the Pythagorean Theorem as it relates to the distance formula. (G.GPE.7, 8.G.B.7, 8.G.B.8) Find the length of a line segment, given its endpoints. (G.GPE.7, 8.G.8) (discover the distance formula) Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, plane, collinear, coplanar, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc. (G.CO.1) Find the midpoint of a line segment on a coordinate plane. Definition: Review definition of Congruence. Congruent line segments, angles. (8.G.1) Define Polygons and give examples and demonstrate why a circle is not a polygon. Define perimeter and use the distance formula to calculate the perimeter of polygons. (GPE.7) Angles: vertical, adjacent, supplementary, complementary (7.G.5) Angle addition, subtraction postulates. (4.MD.7) Angle bisector Triangle Properties: Discuss the properties of isosceles, equilateral, scalene, obtuse, right, and acute triangles. (DNE) Investigate, and apply the properties of triangles in the coordinate plane, using the distance formula. Explain the converse of a statement and show its relation to the definition of isosceles triangles. Demonstrate that the sum of two sides of a triangle must be greater than the third side using inequalities. (DNE) Demonstrate that the sum of the angles of a triangle must = 180. Demonstrate that if two angles of a triangle are different sizes, then the side opposite the larger angle is greater than the side opposite the smaller angle. Demonstrate that its converse is also true. External Angle theorem. Vertical angle theorem. Algebraic applications of special segments in triangles o Altitude o Angle bisector o Median o Perpendicular bisector EUCLIDEAN Demonstrate two non-parallel lines and define interior and exterior. Cut the lines by a transversal and define alternate Identify a. Alternate interior angles b. Alternate exterior angles c. Corresponding angles d. Same-side interior angles e. Same-side exterior angles Demonstrate, when the two lines are parallel, the equality of a. Alternate interior angles 1

2 b. Alternate exterior angles c. Corresponding angles Demonstrate, when the two lines are parallel, the supplementary quality of a. Same-side interior angles b. Same-side exterior angles Polygons: Lab showing how polygons are composed of separate triangles Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about the sum of the measures of the interior and exterior angles of polygons Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about each interior and exterior angle measure of regular polygons. GCO 9 GCO - 10 Constructions with triangles: Demonstrate how a compass can be used to measure line segments. Creating a triangle from a given triangle using a compass and straight edge. Given a base and a side, using a compass, construct an isosceles triangle. Create an equilateral triangle given 1 leg Create an angle from a given angle. GCO 1 GCO -13 Logic Conjunction Disjunction Conditional Biconditional Converse, inverse, contrapositive o Determine which statements are logically equivalent Basic logic proofs Triangle Congruence Introduce two column proof using statement and reason o Introduce important theorems and postulates to be used in proofs Introduce SSS triangle congruence theorem. Introduce SAS triangle congruence theorem Introduce ASA triangle congruence theorem Introduce AAS triangle congruence theorem Introduce HL triangle congruence theorem CPCTC proofs Isosceles triangle proofs Proving and proofs involving parallel lines Overlapping triangles proofs

3 Indirect proofs GCO 7 GCO - 8 MANHATTAN HUNTER SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL Constructions Definitions: Bisect, equidistant, perpendicular bisector. Demonstrate how we create a perpendicular bisector of a line segment. Join the endpoints and show triangle congruence again by SAS. Demonstrate how we bisect an angle. Use a protractor to show that the two resulting angles are congruent. Show how by connecting the endpoints, the two triangles are congruent by SSS. Given a line and a point, construct a line through the point parallel to the given line by creating a corresponding angle. TRANSFORMATIONAL Geometry Explore reflections, translations, rotations, dilations and glide reflections. Definition: Orientation, Isometry, Pre-image, image. Compositional transformations. GCO-: Experiment with transformations in the plane GCO 3 GCO-4 GCO 5 GCO - 6 Midsegment theorem Define endpoint, midpoint, diameter. Find the center of a circle given the endpoints of the diameter. Introduce midpoint formula. Given a triangle, find the midpoint of two sides and join them creating a mid-segment. Measure the length of the mid-segment and the base. What do you notice? Measure the acute angles formed by a leg and the mid-segment and the base and the mid-segment. What do you notice? Lines and Their Relations Perpendicular/ Parallel Lines Review slopes of parallel vs perpendicular lines Given the equation of a line on a coordinate plane, find the equation of another line that a) goes through a given point on the coordinate plane and b) is also parallel to the first line. Review slopes of perpendicular lines. Given the equation of a line on a coordinate plane, find the equation of another line that a) goes through a given point on the coordinate plane and 3

4 b) is also perpendicular to the first line. Determine whether two lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither, given their equations of the lines. GCO-1 Circles Using the distance formula, derive the equation of a circle when the center is at the point of origin. Write the equation of a circle when the center is NOT at the point of origin using ( x h) + ( y k) = r Write the equation of a circle a) given its center and radius b) given the endpoints of a diameter (students must use the midpoint formula to find the center) Find the center and radius of a circle, given the equation of the circle in center-radius form Graph circles given an equation in the form ( x h) + ( y k) = r Locus 5 basic loci Writing the equations of the locus of points Compound locus Quadrilaterals Definition: Quadrilateral, parallelogram. Construction: Construct a parallelogram by constructing two corresponding angles (see earlier constructions. By having students measure each angle and each line segment, state the properties of a parallelogram. Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about parallelograms involving their angles, sides, and diagonals Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about special parallelograms (rectangles, rhombuses, squares) involving their angles, sides, and diagonals Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about trapezoids (including isosceles trapezoids) involving their angles, sides, medians, and diagonals Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about kites involving their angles, sides, and diagonals Review all properties of each quadrilateral: a) Parallelogram b) Rectangle c) Rhombus d) Kite e) Trapezoid f) Isosceles trapezoid Continue to develop two column proof using angle properties of a parallelogram given a figure drawn on a Cartesian plane. GCO - 11 Circles Part 1 4

5 Definitions: 1. Radius. diameter 3. chord 4. arc 5. semi-circle 6. inscribed angle 7. central angle 8. tangent line 9. external angle formed by two tangent lines, secant line 10. intercepted arc 11. internal angle 1. Inscribed vs circumscribed. Investigate and apply theorems related to the measure of arcs and central angles of a circle formed by a) two chords, b) a secant line and a chord c) two secant lines. Investigate and apply theorems related to the measure of arcs inscribed angles of a circle formed by a) two chords, b) a secant line and a chord, c) two secant lines d) a tangent line and a chord. Investigate and apply theorems related to the measure of external angles drawn from a point outside a circle created by two tangent lines, two secant lines, or a tangent and a secant line. Investigate, justify, and apply theorems regarding chords of a circle: Equal chords intercepting equal arcs and its converse. Arcs cut by two parallel chords or secant lines and its converse Lines drawn through the center perpendicular to a chord and its converse Distance of line segments drawn from the center of a circle to congruent chords and its converse. Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about two tangent lines drawn to a circle from a point outside the circle and their relationship to each other. Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about a tangent line and a radius drawn to the point of tangency and its converse. Investigate the properties of two tangent lines drawn to two non-intersecting or tangent circles Investigate, justify, and apply theorems related to internal angles created by two chords, a secant line and a chord or two secant lines when the vertex is inside the circle but neither at the center nor on the circle Continue to develop two column proof using angle properties of circles. Similarity Euclidean 5

6 Determine similarity of triangles, using the following theorems: AA, SAS, and SSS (GSRT-3) Investigate relationships and explore theorems related to similar triangles. GSRT- Explore similarity in right triangles by discovering and applying the three geometric mean theorems. Missing from CC Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about proportional relationships among the segments of the sides of similar triangles, given one or more lines parallel to one side of a triangle and intersecting the other two sides of the triangle (side splitter theorem). GSRT-5 Investigate and discover the triangle-angle bisector theorem. Missing from CC Continue to develop two column proof involving Similar triangles GSRT-4 Explore the relationships between the legs and hypotenuse of Missing from CC a triangles b triangles Solid Geometry Definitions: plane, coplanar Know and apply the theorem that if a line is perpendicular to each of two intersecting lines at their point of intersection, then the line is perpendicular to the plane determined by them Know and apply that through a given point there passes one and only one plane perpendicular to a given line Know and apply that through a given point there passes one and only one line perpendicular to a given plane Know and apply that two lines perpendicular to the same plane are coplanar Know and apply that two planes are perpendicular to each other if and only if one plane contains a line perpendicular to the second plane Know and apply that if a line is perpendicular to a plane, then any line perpendicular to the given line at its point of intersection with the given plane is in the given plane Know and apply that if a line is perpendicular to a plane, then every plane containing the line is perpendicular to the given plane Know and apply that if a plane intersects two parallel planes, then the intersection is two parallel lines Know and apply that if two planes are perpendicular to the same line, they are parallel Volume/Surface Area Definitions: Edge, face, vertices, base. Know and apply that the lateral edges of a prism are congruent and parallel Know and apply that two prisms have equal volumes if their bases have equal areas and their altitudes are equal Know and apply the theorem that the volume of a prism is the product of the area of the base and the altitude Apply the properties of a regular pyramid, including: 6

7 a. lateral edges are congruent b. lateral faces are congruent isosceles triangles c. volume of a pyramid equals one-third the product of the area of the base and the altitude Apply the properties of a cylinder, including: a. bases are congruent b. volume equals the product of the area of the base and the altitude c. lateral area of a right circular cylinder equals the product of an altitude and the circumference of the base Apply the properties of a right circular cone, including: a. lateral area equals one-half the product of the slant height and the circumference of its base b. volume is one-third the product of the area of its base and its altitude Apply the properties of a sphere, including: a. the intersection of a plane and a sphere is a circle b. a great circle is the largest circle that can be drawn on a sphere c. two planes equidistant from the center of the sphere and intersecting the sphere do so in congruent circles d. surface area is 4π r 4 3 e. volume is 3 π r Altitudes and medians of triangles Explore the concept of the incenter, orthocenter and circumcenter of a triangle. 7

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