CHAPTER 1 Graphics Systems and Models 3

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1 ?????? 1 CHAPTER 1 Graphics Systems and Models Applications of Computer Graphics Display of Information Design Simulation and Animation User Interfaces A Graphics System Pixels and the Frame Buffer Output Devices Input Devices Images: Physical and Synthetic Objects and Viewers Light and Images Ray Tracing The Pinhole Camera The Human Visual System The Synthetic-Camera Model The Programmer s Interface The Pen-Plotter Model Three-Dimensional APIs A Sequence of Images The Modeling Rendering Paradigm Graphics Architectures Display Processors Pipeline Architectures The Graphics Pipeline Vertex Processing Clipping and Primitive Assembly Rasterization Fragment Processing Performance Characteristics 36

2 2?????? 1.10 Programmable Pipelines Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 39 Exercises 39 CHAPTER 2 Graphics Programming The Sierpinski Gasket Programming Two-Dimensional Applications Coordinate Systems The OpenGL API Graphics Functions The Graphics Pipeline and State Machines The OpenGL Interface Primitives and Attributes Polygon Basics Polygon Types in OpenGL Approximating a Sphere Text Curved Objects Attributes Color RGB Color Indexed Color Setting of Color Attributes Viewing The Orthographic View Two-Dimensional Viewing Matrix Modes Control Functions Interaction with the Window System Aspect Ratio and Viewports

3 ?????? The main, display, and myinit Functions Program Structure The Gasket Program Polygons and Recursion Plotting Implicit Functions Marching Squares The Three-Dimensional Gasket Use of Three-Dimensional Points Use of Polygons in Three Dimensions Hidden-Surface Removal Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 99 Exercises 100 CHAPTER 3 Input and Interaction Interaction Input Devices Physical Input Devices Logical Devices Input Modes Clients and Servers Display Lists Definition and Execution of Display Lists Text and Display Lists Fonts in GLUT Programming Event-Driven Input Using the Pointing Device Window Events Keyboard Events The Display and Idle Callbacks

4 4?????? Window Management Menus Picking Picking and Selection Mode A Simple Paint Program Building Interactive Models Animating Interactive Programs The Rotating Square Double Buffering Other Buffering Problems Design of Interactive Programs Toolkits, Widgets, and the Frame Buffer Logic Operations Drawing Erasable Lines XOR and Color Cursors and Overlay Planes Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 160 Exercises 160 CHAPTER 4 Geometric Objects and Transformations Scalars, Points, and Vectors Geometric Objects Coordinate-Free Geometry The Mathematical View: Vector and Affine Spaces The Computer-Science View Geometric ADTs Lines Affine Sums

5 ?????? Convexity Dot and Cross Products Planes Three-Dimensional Primitives Coordinate Systems and Frames Representations and N-tuples Changes of Coordinate Systems Example of Change of Representation Homogeneous Coordinates Example of Change in Frames Working with Representations Frames in OpenGL Modeling a Colored Cube Modeling of a Cube Inward- and Outward-Pointing Faces Data Structures for Object Representation The Color Cube Bilinear Interpolation Vertex Arrays Affine Transformations Translation, Rotation, and Scaling Translation Rotation Scaling Transformations in Homogeneous Coordinates Translation Scaling Rotation Shear Concatenation of Transformations Rotation About a Fixed Point General Rotation The Instance Transformation

6 6?????? Rotation About an Arbitrary Axis OpenGL Transformation Matrices The Current Transformation Matrix Rotation, Translation, and Scaling Rotation About a Fixed Point in OpenGL Order of Transformations Spinning of the Cube Loading, Pushing, and Popping Matrices Interfaces to Three-Dimensional Applications Using Areas of the Screen A Virtual Trackball Smooth Rotations Incremental Rotation Quaternions Complex Numbers and Quaternions Quaternions and Rotation Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 236 Exercises 237 CHAPTER 5 Viewing Classical and Computer Viewing Classical Viewing Orthographic Projections Axonometric Projections Oblique Projections Perspective Viewing Viewing with a Computer Positioning of the Camera Positioning of the Camera Frame Two Viewing APIs The Look-At Function

7 ?????? Other Viewing APIs Simple Projections Perspective Projections Orthogonal Projections Projections in OpenGL Perspective in OpenGL Parallel Viewing in OpenGL Hidden-Surface Removal Culling Interactive Mesh Displays Meshes Walking Through a Scene Polygon Offset Parallel-Projection Matrices Projection Normalization Orthogonal-Projection Matrices Oblique Projections Perspective-Projection Matrices Perspective Normalization OpenGL Perspective Transformations Projections and Shadows Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 292 Exercises 292 CHAPTER 6 Shading Light and Matter Light Sources Color Sources Ambient Light

8 8?????? Point Sources Spotlights Distant Light Sources The Phong Reflection Model Ambient Reflection Diffuse Reflection Specular Reflection Computation of Vectors Normal Vectors Angle of Reflection Use of the Halfway Vector Polygonal Shading Flat Shading Interpolative and Gouraud Shading Phong Shading Approximation of a Sphere by Recursive Subdivision Light Sources in OpenGL Specification of Materials in OpenGL Shading of the Sphere Model Global Rendering Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 330 Exercises 330 CHAPTER 7 From Vertices to Fragments Basic Implementation Strategies Four Major Tasks Modeling

9 ?????? Geometric Processing Rasterization Fragment Processing Clipping Line-Segment Clipping Cohen Sutherland Clipping Liang Barsky Clipping Polygon Clipping Clipping of Other Primitives Bounding Boxes and Volumes Curves, Surfaces, and Text Clipping in the Frame Buffer Clipping in Three Dimensions Rasterization Bresenham s Algorithm Testing Algorithms Scan Conversion of Polygons Inside Outside Testing OpenGL and Concave Polygons Fill and Sort Flood Fill Singularities Hidden-Surface Removal Object-Space and Image-Space Approaches Sorting and Hidden-Surface Removal Scan-Line Algorithms Back-Face Removal The z-buffer Algorithm Scan Conversion with the z Buffer Depth Sort and the Painter s Algorithm The Scan-Line Algorithm Scan-Line Algorithms

10 10?????? 7.13 Antialiasing Display Considerations Summary and Notes References 380 Exercises 380 CHAPTER 8 Discrete Techniques Buffers Digital Images Writing into Buffers Writing Modes Writing with XOR Bit and Pixel Operations in OpenGL OpenGL Buffers and the Pixel Pipeline Bitmaps Raster Fonts Pixels and Images Lookup Tables The Mandelbrot Set Buffers for Picking Mapping Methods Texture Mapping Two-Dimensional Texture Mapping Texture Mapping in OpenGL Texture Objects Multitexturing Texture Generation Environmental Maps Compositing Techniques 427

11 ?????? Opacity and Blending Image Compositing Blending and Compositing in OpenGL Antialiasing Back-to-Front and Front-to-Back Rendering Depth Cueing and Fog Multirendering and the Accumulation Buffer Scene Antialiasing Bump Mapping and Embossing Image Processing Imaging Extensions Other Multipass Methods Sampling and Aliasing Sampling Theory Reconstruction Quantization Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 448 Exercises 449 CHAPTER 9 Vertex Shaders Programmable Shaders Shading Languages GLSL and Cg OpenGL Extensions The OpenGL Shading Language Examples Moving Vertices Phong Shading Cartoon Shading Summary 454

12 12?????? 9.6 Exercises 454 CHAPTER 10 Fragment Shaders Fragment Shaders in GLSL Vertex vs Fragment Phong Shading Cube Maps Normal Maps Bump Mapping Summary Exercises 455 CHAPTER Symbols and Instances Hierarchical Models A Robot Arm 462 Hierarchical and Object-Oriented Modeling Trees and Traversal A Stack-Based Traversal Use of Tree Data Structures Animation Graphical Objects Methods, Attributes, and Messages A Cube Object Implementing the Cube Object Objects and Hierarchy Geometric Objects Scene Graphs A Simple Scene Graph API 484

13 ?????? The Node Class Geometry Nodes Camera Class Lights and Materials Transformations The Robot Figure Implementing the Viewer Implementing a Node Other Tree Structures CSG Trees Shade Trees BSP Trees Quadtrees and Octrees Graphics and the Web Networks and Protocols Hypermedia and HTML Databases and VRML Java and Applets Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 512 Exercises 513 CHAPTER 12 Curves and Surfaces Representation of Curves and Surfaces Explicit Representation Implicit Representations Parametric Form Parametric Polynomial Curves Parametric Polynomial Surfaces Design Criteria Parametric Cubic Polynomial Curves Interpolation 523

14 14?????? Blending Functions The Cubic Interpolating Patch Hermite Curves and Surfaces The Hermite Form Geometric and Parametric Continuity Bezier Curves and Surfaces Bezier Curves Bezier Surface Patches Cubic B-Splines The Cubic B-Spline Curve B-Splines and Basis Spline Surfaces General B-Splines Recursively Defined B-Splines Uniform Splines Nonuniform B-Splines NURBS Rendering of Curves and Surfaces Polynomial Evaluation Methods Recursive Subdivision of Bezier Polynomials Rendering of Other Polynomial Curves by Subdivision Subdivision of Bezier Surfaces The Utah Teapot Algebraic Surfaces Quadrics Rendering of Surfaces by Ray Casting Subdivision Curves and Surfaces Curves and Surfaces in OpenGL Bezier Curves Bezier Surfaces Displaying the Teapot

15 ?????? NURBS Functions Quadrics Summary and Notes References and Notes 568 Exercises 568 CHAPTER 13 Advanced Rendering Going Beyond Pipeline Rendering Ray Tracing Building a Simple Ray Tracer Recursive Ray Tracing Calculating Intersections Ray-Tracing Variations The Rendering Equation Radiosity The Radiosity Equation Solving the Radiosity Equation Computing Form Factors Carrying Out Radiosity RenderMan Large-Scale Rendering Sort-Middle Rendering Sort-Last Rendering Sort-First Rendering Image-Based Rendering A Simple Example Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 603 Exercises 604

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