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1 ?????? 1 CHAPTER 1 Graphics Systems and Models Applications of Computer Graphics Display of Information Design Simulation and Animation User Interfaces A Graphics System Pixels and the Frame Buffer Output Devices Input Devices Images: Physical and Synthetic Objects and Viewers Light and Images Ray Tracing The Pinhole Camera The Human Visual System The SyntheticCamera Model The Programmer s Interface The PenPlotter Model ThreeDimensional APIs A Sequence of Images The Modeling Rendering Paradigm Graphics Architectures Display Processors Pipeline Architectures The Graphics Pipeline Vertex Processing Clipping and Primitive Assembly Rasterization Fragment Processing Performance Characteristics 36
2 2?????? 1.10 Programmable Pipelines Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 39 Exercises 39 CHAPTER 2 Graphics Programming The Sierpinski Gasket Programming TwoDimensional Applications Coordinate Systems The OpenGL API Graphics Functions The Graphics Pipeline and State Machines The OpenGL Interface Primitives and Attributes Polygon Basics Polygon Types in OpenGL Approximating a Sphere Text Curved Objects Attributes Color RGB Color Indexed Color Setting of Color Attributes Viewing The Orthographic View TwoDimensional Viewing Matrix Modes Control Functions Interaction with the Window System Aspect Ratio and Viewports
3 ?????? The main, display, and myinit Functions Program Structure The Gasket Program Polygons and Recursion Plotting Implicit Functions Marching Squares The ThreeDimensional Gasket Use of ThreeDimensional Points Use of Polygons in Three Dimensions HiddenSurface Removal Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 99 Exercises 100 CHAPTER 3 Input and Interaction Interaction Input Devices Physical Input Devices Logical Devices Input Modes Clients and Servers Display Lists Definition and Execution of Display Lists Text and Display Lists Fonts in GLUT Programming EventDriven Input Using the Pointing Device Window Events Keyboard Events The Display and Idle Callbacks
4 4?????? Window Management Menus Picking Picking and Selection Mode A Simple Paint Program Building Interactive Models Animating Interactive Programs The Rotating Square Double Buffering Other Buffering Problems Design of Interactive Programs Toolkits, Widgets, and the Frame Buffer Logic Operations Drawing Erasable Lines XOR and Color Cursors and Overlay Planes Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 160 Exercises 160 CHAPTER 4 Geometric Objects and Transformations Scalars, Points, and Vectors Geometric Objects CoordinateFree Geometry The Mathematical View: Vector and Affine Spaces The ComputerScience View Geometric ADTs Lines Affine Sums
5 ?????? Convexity Dot and Cross Products Planes ThreeDimensional Primitives Coordinate Systems and Frames Representations and Ntuples Changes of Coordinate Systems Example of Change of Representation Homogeneous Coordinates Example of Change in Frames Working with Representations Frames in OpenGL Modeling a Colored Cube Modeling of a Cube Inward and OutwardPointing Faces Data Structures for Object Representation The Color Cube Bilinear Interpolation Vertex Arrays Affine Transformations Translation, Rotation, and Scaling Translation Rotation Scaling Transformations in Homogeneous Coordinates Translation Scaling Rotation Shear Concatenation of Transformations Rotation About a Fixed Point General Rotation The Instance Transformation
6 6?????? Rotation About an Arbitrary Axis OpenGL Transformation Matrices The Current Transformation Matrix Rotation, Translation, and Scaling Rotation About a Fixed Point in OpenGL Order of Transformations Spinning of the Cube Loading, Pushing, and Popping Matrices Interfaces to ThreeDimensional Applications Using Areas of the Screen A Virtual Trackball Smooth Rotations Incremental Rotation Quaternions Complex Numbers and Quaternions Quaternions and Rotation Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 236 Exercises 237 CHAPTER 5 Viewing Classical and Computer Viewing Classical Viewing Orthographic Projections Axonometric Projections Oblique Projections Perspective Viewing Viewing with a Computer Positioning of the Camera Positioning of the Camera Frame Two Viewing APIs The LookAt Function
7 ?????? Other Viewing APIs Simple Projections Perspective Projections Orthogonal Projections Projections in OpenGL Perspective in OpenGL Parallel Viewing in OpenGL HiddenSurface Removal Culling Interactive Mesh Displays Meshes Walking Through a Scene Polygon Offset ParallelProjection Matrices Projection Normalization OrthogonalProjection Matrices Oblique Projections PerspectiveProjection Matrices Perspective Normalization OpenGL Perspective Transformations Projections and Shadows Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 292 Exercises 292 CHAPTER 6 Shading Light and Matter Light Sources Color Sources Ambient Light
8 8?????? Point Sources Spotlights Distant Light Sources The Phong Reflection Model Ambient Reflection Diffuse Reflection Specular Reflection Computation of Vectors Normal Vectors Angle of Reflection Use of the Halfway Vector Polygonal Shading Flat Shading Interpolative and Gouraud Shading Phong Shading Approximation of a Sphere by Recursive Subdivision Light Sources in OpenGL Specification of Materials in OpenGL Shading of the Sphere Model Global Rendering Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 330 Exercises 330 CHAPTER 7 From Vertices to Fragments Basic Implementation Strategies Four Major Tasks Modeling
9 ?????? Geometric Processing Rasterization Fragment Processing Clipping LineSegment Clipping Cohen Sutherland Clipping Liang Barsky Clipping Polygon Clipping Clipping of Other Primitives Bounding Boxes and Volumes Curves, Surfaces, and Text Clipping in the Frame Buffer Clipping in Three Dimensions Rasterization Bresenham s Algorithm Testing Algorithms Scan Conversion of Polygons Inside Outside Testing OpenGL and Concave Polygons Fill and Sort Flood Fill Singularities HiddenSurface Removal ObjectSpace and ImageSpace Approaches Sorting and HiddenSurface Removal ScanLine Algorithms BackFace Removal The zbuffer Algorithm Scan Conversion with the z Buffer Depth Sort and the Painter s Algorithm The ScanLine Algorithm ScanLine Algorithms
10 10?????? 7.13 Antialiasing Display Considerations Summary and Notes References 380 Exercises 380 CHAPTER 8 Discrete Techniques Buffers Digital Images Writing into Buffers Writing Modes Writing with XOR Bit and Pixel Operations in OpenGL OpenGL Buffers and the Pixel Pipeline Bitmaps Raster Fonts Pixels and Images Lookup Tables The Mandelbrot Set Buffers for Picking Mapping Methods Texture Mapping TwoDimensional Texture Mapping Texture Mapping in OpenGL Texture Objects Multitexturing Texture Generation Environmental Maps Compositing Techniques 427
11 ?????? Opacity and Blending Image Compositing Blending and Compositing in OpenGL Antialiasing BacktoFront and FronttoBack Rendering Depth Cueing and Fog Multirendering and the Accumulation Buffer Scene Antialiasing Bump Mapping and Embossing Image Processing Imaging Extensions Other Multipass Methods Sampling and Aliasing Sampling Theory Reconstruction Quantization Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 448 Exercises 449 CHAPTER 9 Vertex Shaders Programmable Shaders Shading Languages GLSL and Cg OpenGL Extensions The OpenGL Shading Language Examples Moving Vertices Phong Shading Cartoon Shading Summary 454
12 12?????? 9.6 Exercises 454 CHAPTER 10 Fragment Shaders Fragment Shaders in GLSL Vertex vs Fragment Phong Shading Cube Maps Normal Maps Bump Mapping Summary Exercises 455 CHAPTER Symbols and Instances Hierarchical Models A Robot Arm 462 Hierarchical and ObjectOriented Modeling Trees and Traversal A StackBased Traversal Use of Tree Data Structures Animation Graphical Objects Methods, Attributes, and Messages A Cube Object Implementing the Cube Object Objects and Hierarchy Geometric Objects Scene Graphs A Simple Scene Graph API 484
13 ?????? The Node Class Geometry Nodes Camera Class Lights and Materials Transformations The Robot Figure Implementing the Viewer Implementing a Node Other Tree Structures CSG Trees Shade Trees BSP Trees Quadtrees and Octrees Graphics and the Web Networks and Protocols Hypermedia and HTML Databases and VRML Java and Applets Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 512 Exercises 513 CHAPTER 12 Curves and Surfaces Representation of Curves and Surfaces Explicit Representation Implicit Representations Parametric Form Parametric Polynomial Curves Parametric Polynomial Surfaces Design Criteria Parametric Cubic Polynomial Curves Interpolation 523
14 14?????? Blending Functions The Cubic Interpolating Patch Hermite Curves and Surfaces The Hermite Form Geometric and Parametric Continuity Bezier Curves and Surfaces Bezier Curves Bezier Surface Patches Cubic BSplines The Cubic BSpline Curve BSplines and Basis Spline Surfaces General BSplines Recursively Defined BSplines Uniform Splines Nonuniform BSplines NURBS Rendering of Curves and Surfaces Polynomial Evaluation Methods Recursive Subdivision of Bezier Polynomials Rendering of Other Polynomial Curves by Subdivision Subdivision of Bezier Surfaces The Utah Teapot Algebraic Surfaces Quadrics Rendering of Surfaces by Ray Casting Subdivision Curves and Surfaces Curves and Surfaces in OpenGL Bezier Curves Bezier Surfaces Displaying the Teapot
15 ?????? NURBS Functions Quadrics Summary and Notes References and Notes 568 Exercises 568 CHAPTER 13 Advanced Rendering Going Beyond Pipeline Rendering Ray Tracing Building a Simple Ray Tracer Recursive Ray Tracing Calculating Intersections RayTracing Variations The Rendering Equation Radiosity The Radiosity Equation Solving the Radiosity Equation Computing Form Factors Carrying Out Radiosity RenderMan LargeScale Rendering SortMiddle Rendering SortLast Rendering SortFirst Rendering ImageBased Rendering A Simple Example Summary and Notes Suggested Readings 603 Exercises 604
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