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2 About the Tutorial Discrete Mathematics is a branch of mathematics involving discrete elements that uses algebra and arithmetic. It is increasingly being applied in the practical fields of mathematics and computer science. It is a very good tool for improving reasoning and problem-solving capabilities. This tutorial explains the fundamental concepts of Sets, Relations and Functions, Mathematical Logic, Group theory, Counting Theory, Probability, Mathematical Induction and Recurrence Relations, Graph Theory, Trees and Boolean Algebra. Audience This tutorial has been prepared for students pursuing a degree in any field of computer science and mathematics. It endeavors to help students grasp the essential concepts of discrete mathematics. Prerequisites This tutorial has an ample amount of both theory and mathematics. The readers are expected to have a reasonably good understanding of elementary algebra and arithmetic. Copyright & Disclaimer Copyright 2016 by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. The user of this e-book is prohibited to reuse, retain, copy, distribute or republish any contents or a part of contents of this e-book in any manner without written consent of the publisher. We strive to update the contents of our website and tutorials as timely and as precisely as possible, however, the contents may contain inaccuracies or errors. Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy, timeliness or completeness of our website or its contents including this tutorial. If you discover any errors on our website or in this tutorial, please notify us at i

3 Table of Contents About the Tutorial... i Audience... i Prerequisites... i Copyright & Disclaimer... i Table of Contents... ii 1. Discrete Mathematics Introduction... 1 PART 1: SETS, RELATIONS, AND FUNCTIONS Sets... 3 Set Definition... 3 Representation of a Set... 3 Cardinality of a Set... 4 Types of Sets... 5 Venn Diagrams... 7 Set Operations... 7 Power Set... 9 Partitioning of a Set Relations Definition and Properties Domain and Range Representation of Relations using Graph Types of Relations Functions Function Definition Injective / One-to-one function Surjective / Onto function Bijective / One-to-one Correspondent Inverse of a Function Composition of Functions PART 2: MATHEMATICAL LOGIC Propositional Logic Prepositional Logic Definition Connectives Tautologies Contradictions Contingency Propositional Equivalences Inverse, Converse, and Contra-positive Duality Principle Normal Forms ii

4 6. Predicate Logic Predicate Logic Definition Well Formed Formula Quantifiers Nested Quantifiers Rules of Inference What are Rules of Inference for? Table of Rules of Inference Addition Conjunction Simplification Modus Ponens Modus Tollens Disjunctive Syllogism Hypothetical Syllogism Constructive Dilemma Destructive Dilemma PART 3: GROUP THEORY Operators and Postulates Closure Associative Laws Commutative Laws Distributive Laws Identity Element Inverse De Morgan s Law Group Theory Semigroup Monoid Group Abelian Group Cyclic Group and Subgroup Partially Ordered Set (POSET) Hasse Diagram Linearly Ordered Set Lattice Properties of Lattices Dual of a Lattice PART 4: COUNTING & PROBABILITY Counting Theory The Rules of Sum and Product Permutations Combinations Pascal's Identity Pigeonhole Principle The Inclusion-Exclusion principle iii

5 11. Probability Basic Concepts Probability Axioms Properties of Probability Conditional Probability Bayes' Theorem PART 5: MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION & RECURRENCE RELATIONS Mathematical Induction Definition How to Do It Strong Induction Recurrence Relation Definition Linear Recurrence Relations Non-Homogeneous Recurrence Relation and Particular Solutions Generating Functions PART 6: DISCRETE STRUCTURES Graph and Graph Models What is a Graph? Types of Graphs Representation of Graphs Planar vs. Non-planar Graph Isomorphism Homomorphism Euler Graphs Hamiltonian Graphs More on Graphs Graph Coloring Graph Traversal Introduction to Trees Tree and its Properties Centers and Bi-Centers of a Tree Labeled Trees Unlabeled trees Rooted Tree Binary Search Tree Spanning Trees Minimum Spanning Tree Kruskal's Algorithm Prim's Algorithm iv

6 PART 7: BOOLEAN ALGEBRA Boolean Expressions and Functions Boolean Functions Boolean Expressions Boolean Identities Canonical Forms Logic Gates Simplification of Boolean Functions Simplification Using Algebraic Functions Karnaugh Maps Simplification Using K- map v

7 1. Discrete Mathematics Introduction Discrete Mathematics Mathematics can be broadly classified into two categories: Continuous Mathematics It is based upon continuous number line or the real numbers. It is characterized by the fact that between any two numbers, there are almost always an infinite set of numbers. For example, a function in continuous mathematics can be plotted in a smooth curve without breaks. Discrete Mathematics It involves distinct values; i.e. between any two points, there are a countable number of points. For example, if we have a finite set of objects, the function can be defined as a list of ordered pairs having these objects, and can be presented as a complete list of those pairs. Topics in Discrete Mathematics Though there cannot be a definite number of branches of Discrete Mathematics, the following topics are almost always covered in any study regarding this matter: Sets, Relations and Functions Mathematical Logic Group theory Counting Theory Probability Mathematical Induction and Recurrence Relations Graph Theory Trees Boolean Algebra We will discuss each of these concepts in the subsequent chapters of this tutorial. 6

8 Part 1: Sets, Relations, and Functions 7

9 2. Sets Discrete Mathematics German mathematician G. Cantor introduced the concept of sets. He had defined a set as a collection of definite and distinguishable objects selected by the means of certain rules or description. Set theory forms the basis of several other fields of study like counting theory, relations, graph theory and finite state machines. In this chapter, we will cover the different aspects of Set Theory. Set Definition A set is an unordered collection of different elements. A set can be written explicitly by listing its elements using set bracket. If the order of the elements is changed or any element of a set is repeated, it does not make any changes in the set. Some Example of Sets A set of all positive integers A set of all the planets in the solar system A set of all the states in India A set of all the lowercase letters of the alphabet Representation of a Set Sets can be represented in two ways: Roster or Tabular Form Set Builder Notation Roster or Tabular Form The set is represented by listing all the elements comprising it. The elements are enclosed within braces and separated by commas. Example 1: Set of vowels in English alphabet, A = {a,e,i,o,u} Example 2: Set of odd numbers less than 10, B = {1,3,5,7,9} 8

10 Set Builder Notation The set is defined by specifying a property that elements of the set have in common. The set is described as A = { x : p(x)} Example 1: The set {a,e,i,o,u} is written as: A = { x : x is a vowel in English alphabet} Example 2: The set {1,3,5,7,9} is written as: B = { x : 1 x<10 and (x%2) 0} If an element x is a member of any set S, it is denoted by x S and if an element y is not a member of set S, it is denoted by y S. Example: If S = {1, 1.2,1.7,2}, 1 S but 1.5 S Some Important Sets N: the set of all natural numbers = {1, 2, 3, 4,...} Z: the set of all integers = {..., -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,...} Z + : the set of all positive integers Q: the set of all rational numbers R: the set of all real numbers W: the set of all whole numbers Cardinality of a Set Cardinality of a set S, denoted by S, is the number of elements of the set. The number is also referred as the cardinal number. If a set has an infinite number of elements, its cardinality is. Example: {1, 4, 3,5} = 4, {1, 2, 3,4,5, } = If there are two sets X and Y, X = Y denotes two sets X and Y having same cardinality. It occurs when the number of elements in X is exactly equal to the number of elements in Y. In this case, there exists a bijective function f from X to Y. X Y denotes that set X s cardinality is less than or equal to set Y s cardinality. It occurs when number of elements in X is less than or equal to that of Y. Here, there exists an injective function f from X to Y. 9

11 X < Y denotes that set X s cardinality is less than set Y s cardinality. It occurs when number of elements in X is less than that of Y. Here, the function f from X to Y is injective function but not bijective. If X Y and Y X then X = Y. The sets X and Y are commonly referred as equivalent sets. Types of Sets Sets can be classified into many types. Some of which are finite, infinite, subset, universal, proper, singleton set, etc. Finite Set A set which contains a definite number of elements is called a finite set. Example: S = {x x N and 70 > x > 50} Infinite Set A set which contains infinite number of elements is called an infinite set. Example: S = {x x N and x > 10} Subset A set X is a subset of set Y (Written as X Y) if every element of X is an element of set Y. Example 1: Let, X = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 } and Y = { 1, 2 }. Here set Y is a subset of set X as all the elements of set Y is in set X. Hence, we can write Y X. Example 2: Let, X = {1, 2, 3} and Y = {1, 2, 3}. Here set Y is a subset (Not a proper subset) of set X as all the elements of set Y is in set X. Hence, we can write Y X. Proper Subset The term proper subset can be defined as subset of but not equal to. A Set X is a proper subset of set Y (Written as X Y) if every element of X is an element of set Y and X < Y. Example: Let, X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and Y = {1, 2}. Here set Y X since all elements in Y are contained in X too and X has at least one element is more than set Y. 10

12 Universal Set It is a collection of all elements in a particular context or application. All the sets in that context or application are essentially subsets of this universal set. Universal sets are represented as U. Example: We may define U as the set of all animals on earth. In this case, set of all mammals is a subset of U, set of all fishes is a subset of U, set of all insects is a subset of U, and so on. Empty Set or Null Set An empty set contains no elements. It is denoted by. As the number of elements in an empty set is finite, empty set is a finite set. The cardinality of empty set or null set is zero. Example: S = {x x N and 7 < x < 8} = Singleton Set or Unit Set Singleton set or unit set contains only one element. A singleton set is denoted by {s}. Example: S = {x x N, 7 < x < 9} = { 8 } Equal Set If two sets contain the same elements they are said to be equal. Example: If A = {1, 2, 6} and B = {6, 1, 2}, they are equal as every element of set A is an element of set B and every element of set B is an element of set A. Equivalent Set If the cardinalities of two sets are same, they are called equivalent sets. Example: If A = {1, 2, 6} and B = {16, 17, 22}, they are equivalent as cardinality of A is equal to the cardinality of B. i.e. A = B =3 Overlapping Set Two sets that have at least one common element are called overlapping sets. In case of overlapping sets: n(a B) = n(a) + n(b) - n(a B) n(a B) = n(a - B) + n(b - A) + n(a B) 11

13 n(a) = n(a - B) + n(a B) n(b) = n(b - A) + n(a B) Example: Let, A = {1, 2, 6} and B = {6, 12, 42}. There is a common element 6, hence these sets are overlapping sets. Disjoint Set Two sets A and B are called disjoint sets if they do not have even one element in common. Therefore, disjoint sets have the following properties: n(a B) = n(a B) = n(a) + n(b) Example: Let, A = {1, 2, 6} and B = {7, 9, 14}; there is not a single common element, hence these sets are overlapping sets. Venn Diagrams Venn diagram, invented in1880 by John Venn, is a schematic diagram that shows all possible logical relations between different mathematical sets. Examples Set Operations Set Operations include Set Union, Set Intersection, Set Difference, Complement of Set, and Cartesian Product. Set Union The union of sets A and B (denoted by A B) is the set of elements which are in A, in B, or in both A and B. Hence, A B = {x x A OR x B}. 12

14 Example: If A = {10, 11, 12, 13} and B = {13, 14, 15}, then A B = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15}. (The common element occurs only once) A B Figure: Venn Diagram of A B Set Intersection The intersection of sets A and B (denoted by A B) is the set of elements which are in both A and B. Hence, A B = {x x A AND x B}. Example: If A = {11, 12, 13} and B = {13, 14, 15}, then A B = {13}. A Figure: Venn Diagram of A B Set Difference/ Relative Complement The set difference of sets A and B (denoted by A B) is the set of elements which are only in A but not in B. Hence, A B = {x x A AND x B}. Example: If A = {10, 11, 12, 13} and B = {13, 14, 15}, then (A B) = {10, 11, 12} and (B A) = {14,15}. Here, we can see (A B) (B A) A B A B A B 13

15 Figure: Venn Diagram of A B and B A Complement of a Set The complement of a set A (denoted by A ) is the set of elements which are not in set A. Hence, A' = {x x A}. More specifically, A'= (U A) where U is a universal set which contains all objects. Example: If A ={x x belongs to set of odd integers} then A' ={y y does not belong to set of odd integers} U A Figure: Venn Diagram of A' Cartesian Product / Cross Product The Cartesian product of n number of sets A1, A2...An, denoted as A1 A2... An, can be defined as all possible ordered pairs (x1,x2,...xn) where x1 A1, x2 A2,... xn An Example: If we take two sets A= {a, b} and B= {1, 2}, The Cartesian product of A and B is written as: A B= {(a, 1), (a, 2), (b, 1), (b, 2)} The Cartesian product of B and A is written as: B A= {(1, a), (1, b), (2, a), (2, b)} Power Set Power set of a set S is the set of all subsets of S including the empty set. The cardinality of a power set of a set S of cardinality n is 2 n. Power set is denoted as P(S). Example: For a set S = {a, b, c, d} let us calculate the subsets: Subsets with 0 elements: { } (the empty set) Subsets with 1 element: {a}, {b}, {c}, {d} Subsets with 2 elements: {a,b}, {a,c}, {a,d}, {b,c}, {b,d},{c,d} Subsets with 3 elements: {a,b,c},{a,b,d},{a,c,d},{b,c,d} Subsets with 4 elements: {a,b,c,d} Hence, P(S) = 14

16 { { },{a}, {b}, {c}, {d},{a,b}, {a,c}, {a,d}, {b,c}, {b,d},{c,d},{a,b,c},{a,b,d},{a,c,d},{b,c,d},{a,b,c,d} } P(S) = 2 4 =16 Note: The power set of an empty set is also an empty set. P ({ }) = 2 0 = 1 Partitioning of a Set Partition of a set, say S, is a collection of n disjoint subsets, say P1, P2,... Pn, that satisfies the following three conditions: Pi does not contain the empty set. [ Pi { } for all 0 < i n] The union of the subsets must equal the entire original set. [P1 P2... Pn = S] The intersection of any two distinct sets is empty. [Pa Pb ={ }, for a b where n a, b 0 ] Example Let S = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} One probable partitioning is {a}, {b, c, d}, {e, f, g,h} Another probable partitioning is {a,b}, { c, d}, {e, f, g,h} Bell Numbers Bell numbers give the count of the number of ways to partition a set. They are denoted by Bn where n is the cardinality of the set. Example: Let S = { 1, 2, 3}, n = S = 3 The alternate partitions are: 1., {1, 2, 3} 2. {1}, {2, 3} 3. {1, 2}, {3} 4. {1, 3}, {2} 5. {1}, {2},{3} 15

17 Hence B3 = 5 16

18 3. Relations Discrete Mathematics Whenever sets are being discussed, the relationship between the elements of the sets is the next thing that comes up. Relations may exist between objects of the same set or between objects of two or more sets. Definition and Properties A binary relation R from set x to y (written as xry or R(x,y)) is a subset of the Cartesian product x y. If the ordered pair of G is reversed, the relation also changes. Generally an n-ary relation R between sets A1,..., and An is a subset of the n-ary product A1... An. The minimum cardinality of a relation R is Zero and maximum is n 2 in this case. A binary relation R on a single set A is a subset of A A. For two distinct sets, A and B, having cardinalities m and n respectively, the maximum cardinality of a relation R from A to B is mn. Domain and Range If there are two sets A and B, and relation R have order pair (x, y), then: The domain of R, Dom(R), is the set { x (x, y) R for some y in B } The range of R, Ran(R), is the set { y (x, y) R for some x in A } Examples Let, A = {1,2,9} and B = {1,3,7} Case 1: If relation R is equal to then R = {(1, 1), (3, 3)} Dom(R) = { 1, 3}, Ran(R) = { 1, 3} Case 2: If relation R is less than then R = {(1, 3), (1, 7), (2, 3), (2, 7)} Dom(R) = { 1, 2}, Ran(R) = { 3, 7} Case 3: If relation R is greater than then R = {(2, 1), (9, 1), (9, 3), (9, 7)} Dom(R) = { 2, 9}, Ran(R) = { 1, 3, 7} 17

19 Representation of Relations using Graph A relation can be represented using a directed graph. The number of vertices in the graph is equal to the number of elements in the set from which the relation has been defined. For each ordered pair (x, y) in the relation R, there will be a directed edge from the vertex x to vertex y. If there is an ordered pair (x, x), there will be self- loop on vertex x. Suppose, there is a relation R = {(1, 1), (1,2), (3, 2)} on set S = {1,2,3}, it can be represented by the following graph: 2 1 Figure: Representation of relation by directed graph 3 Types of Relations 1. The Empty Relation between sets X and Y, or on E, is the empty set 2. The Full Relation between sets X and Y is the set X Y 3. The Identity Relation on set X is the set {(x,x) x X} 4. The Inverse Relation R' of a relation R is defined as: R = {(b,a) (a,b) R} Example: If R = {(1, 2), (2,3)} then R will be {(2,1), (3,2)} 5. A relation R on set A is called Reflexive if a A is related to a (ara holds). Example: The relation R = {(a,a), (b,b)} on set X={a,b} is reflexive 6. A relation R on set A is called Irreflexive if no a A is related to a (ara does not hold). Example: The relation R = {(a,b), (b,a)} on set X={a,b} is irreflexive 7. A relation R on set A is called Symmetric if xry implies yrx, x A and y A. Example: The relation R = {(1, 2), (2, 1), (3, 2), (2, 3)} on set A={1, 2, 3} is symmetric. 8. A relation R on set A is called Anti-Symmetric if xry and yrx implies 18

20 x=y x A and y A. Example: The relation R = { (x,y) N x y } is anti-symmetric since y x implies x = y. x y and 9. A relation R on set A is called Transitive if xry and yrz implies xrz, x,y,z A. Example: The relation R = {(1, 2), (2, 3), (1, 3)} on set A= {1, 2, 3} is transitive. 10. A relation is an Equivalence Relation if it is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive. Example: The relation R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (1, 2),(2,1), (2,3), (3,2), (1,3), (3,1)} on set A= {1, 2, 3} is an equivalence relation since it is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive. 19

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