CHAPTER 3 Expressions, Functions, Output


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1 CHAPTER 3 Expressions, Functions, Output More Data Types: Integral Number Types short, long, int (all represent integer values with no fractional part). Computer Representation of integer numbers  Number is stored in binary usually takes up 2 to 4 bytes Converting from decimal to binary integer  Divide by two, record remainder, divide 2 into quotient.  Reverse this entire binary sequence created from remainders.  Negative number represented by 2 s compliment 2/26 > 0 2/13 > 1 2/6 > 0 2/3 > 1 2/1 > 1 (reverse these) 26 = verification 1 X X X X X 2 0 = = (flip bits & add 1) 1
2 Floating Point Types float, double (have an integer portion and a fractional portion). 3.4, 0.98, 98.0, 3.4E3 (3.4 x 10 3 ) Computer Representation of floating point numbers  Number is stored in binary usually takes up 4 to 8 bytes  The binary number has two pieces mantissa and exponent.  First bit of each is reserved for the sign Converting from decimal to binary float  Integer portion is converted as an integer.  Decimal portion converted by multiplying decimal portion by 2, record what appears in the ones position, multiply the decimal of this number etc only an approximation.  Convert binary float to binary scientific notation  Store: sign of mantissa, mantissa, sign of exponent, exponent /35 > 1 2/17 >1 2/8 > 0 2/4 > 0 2/2 > 0 2/1 > 1 (reverse) 2*0.57 = > 1 2*0.14 = > 0 2*0.28 = > 0 2*0.56 = > 1 <STOP> (no reverse) = verify approximation => 1 X X X X X X X X X X 24 Convert to binary scientific notation: X (mantissa) (exponent) How does the computer know how to view a series of bits????? ASCII Example : Could be the integer = 2644 Could be two characters = newline, T Could be an instruction = opcode 10, operand 84 Could be the float with mantissa and exponent *** Program tells computer how to interpret the ones and zeros. 2
3 Arithmetic Expressions: Arithmetic Operators: +, , *, /, % y = 15 + x; x = 8 / 3; a = 8.0 / 3.0; y = 9 % 2; Increment (++) and Decrement ( ) Unary operators automatically modify a variable by 1. x++; // postfix notation for x = x + 1; ++x; // prefix notation for x = x + 1; y; // prefix notation for y = y 1; y ; // postfix notation for y = y 1; Precedence Rules operators have a preestablished order in which they will be applied. Parentheses can be used to override this order or to ensure the order is correct. Mixed Mode Expressions An expression that contains operands from different data types. Type Coercion  Implicit or automatic conversion of a value from one data type to another. Type Casting  Explicit conversion of a value from one data type to another; also called type conversion. (makes expressions clearer) Promotion  (widening) Conversion of a value from a lower type to an higher type according to a programming language s precedence of data types. Demotion  (narrowing) Conversion of a value from a higher type to a lower type according to a programming language s precedence types. Demotion may cause loss of information. char, short, int unsigned int long unsigned long float double long double enum int sum, count; float avg; sum = 46.2; // sum is 46 sum = int(46.2); // sum is 46  same as above but clearer count = int ( 51.6) ; // count is 51 avg = sum / count; // 46/51 = 0 coerced to a float 0.0 avg = float(sum / count); // 46/51 = 0 coerced to a float 0.0 avg = float(sum) / count; // 46.0/51 = avg = float(sum) / float(count); // 46.0/51.0 = (clearer) 3
4 Function Calls and Function Libraries: call  using the function name causes execution to jump to beginning of function and begin executing function. ( sqrt(25)) return  causes execution to jump back to statement following the call statement (jumps back to caller). arguments or parameters  variables that are shared between caller and function. return value value that is returned to caller through the function name (only for nonvoid functions.). Valuereturning function Function call is used within an expression Function computes a value that is used in the expression Function returns exactly one value. <Calculating the area of a rectangle> Void Function Function call is a standalone statement Function performs an activity (procedure) Function does not return a function value (values may be communicated out of the function through the parameters or arguments). <add a PrintArea function to the previous example> Library Functions A large collection of prewritten C++ functions Must include the header file appropriate for that function (includes the declaration for that function) Call that function where ever needed, how ever many times you need. No function definition is included in your source program the definition is linked with your object code at link time. 4
5 Formatting Output controlling how the output appears in the output stream Spaces spaces between quotes cout the standard output stream (monitor). iostream.h header file that declares and intializes the cin, cout stream objects Insertion operator ("put to" an output stream)  << Manipulators (iomanip) causes some action to occur in the stream. Some can be inserted into the output stream using the insertion operator. Some can be used in extraction from the input stream. Examples: endl  inserts a linefeed. setw(width)  only affects very next value inserted into the output stream. Indicates the number of character positions to allot for the next value. Will expand if value is larger than width indicated. (default is setw(0) ) setprecision(precision) indicates the number of decimal places for a floating point number. fixed  forces floating point numbers to print in decimal form instead of scientific notation. showpoint  forces a decimal point to be displayed  even for whole numbers. Examples: float num1 = , num2 = 3.00; cout << num1<<endl<<num2; // <newline> 3 cout << showpoint << fixed << num1 << endl << num2; // <newline> cout << showpoint << fixed << setprecision(2) <<setw(8) << num1 << endl << num2; // ^ ^ ^ ^ 3.12 <newline>
6 Additional string operations: s.length( )  returns an integer (string::size_type) indicating the number of characters in a string s.size( )  same as length( ) s.find(arg)  returns the integer (string::size_type) starting position of the arg substring in the string s.substring(pos, len)  returns a substring starting at position pos having a length len. 6
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