# CS 314 Principles of Programming Languages

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1 CS 314 Principles of Programming Languages Lecture 15: Review and Functional Programming Zheng (Eddy) Zhang Rutgers University March 19, 2018

2 Class Information Midterm exam forum open in Sakai. HW4 and HW5 solutions posted in Sakai. This week s recitation is a review for midterm. Attance is encouraged! Reminder: midterm exam 3/26, in class, closed book, closed notes. 2

3 Review: Lexical Scoping Symbol table generated at compile time matches declarations and occurrences. Each name can be represented as a pair (nesting_level, local_index). Program x, y: integer // declarations of x and y Procedure B // declaration of B y, z: real // declaration of y and z y = x + z // occurrences of y, x, and z if () call B // occurrence of B Procedure C // declaration of C x: real call B // occurrence of B call C // occurrence of C call B // occurrence of B Program (1,1), (1,2): integer // declarations of x and y Procedure (1,3) // declaration of B (2,1), (2,2): real // declaration of y and z (2,1) = (1,1) + (2,2) // occurrences of y, x, and z if () call (1,3) // occurrence of B Procedure (1,4) // declaration of C (2,1): real call (1,3) // occurrence of B call (1,4) // occurrence of C call (1,3) // occurrence of B 3

4 Review: Access to Non-Local Data(Lexical Scoping) Low High What code do we need to generate for statement (*)? (2,1) = (1,1) + (2,2) Lexical Parent caller Level 1 local variables Current Saved in r0 caller local variables Level 2 > Current Level Assume field is 4 bytes. Each unit offset corresponds to 4 bytes. 4

12 Procedures Modularize program structure - Actual : information passed from caller to callee (Argument) Appears in caller code. - Formal : local variable whose value (usually) is received from caller Appears in callee declaration Procedure declaration - Procedure names, formal s, procedure body with formal local declarations and statement lists, optional result type Example: void translate(point *p, int dx) 12

13 Parameters Parameter Association Positional association: Arguments associated with formals one-by-one; Example: C, Pascal, Java, Scheme Keyword association: formal/actual pairs; mix of positional and keyword possible; Example: Ada procedure plot(x, y: in real; z: in boolean) plot (0.0, 0.0, z true) plot (z true, x 0.0, y 0.0) Parameter Passing Modes Pass-by-value: C/C++, Pascal, Java/C# (value types), Scheme Pass-by-result: Ada, Algol W Pass-by-value-result: Ada, Swift Pass-by-reference: Fortran, Pascal, C++, Ruby, ML 13

14 Pass-by-value c: array[110] of integer; m, n: integer; procedure r(k, j: integer) k := k + 1; j := j + 2; r; m := 5; n := 3; r(m, n); write m,n; Output: 5 3 Advantage: Argument protected from changes in callee. Disadvantage: Copying of values takes execution time and space, especially for aggregate values (e.g.: structs, arrays) 14

15 Pass-by-reference c: array[110] of integer; m, n: integer; procedure r(k,j: integer) k := k + 1; j := j + 2; r; m := 5; n := 3; r(m, n); write m, n; Output: 6 5 Advantage: more efficient than copying Disadvantage: leads to aliasing, there are two or more names for the storage location; hard to track side effects 15

16 Aliasing Aliasing: More than two ways to name the same object within a scope Even without pointers, you can have aliasing through (global formal) and (formal formal) passing. j, k, m: integer; procedure r(a, b: integer) b := 3; m := m * a; q(m, k); q(j, j); write y; global/formal <m,a> ALIAS PAIR formal/formal <a,b> ALIAS PAIR 16

17 Pass-by-result c: array[110] of integer; m, n: integer; procedure r(k, j: integer) k := 1; j := 2; r; m := 5; n := 3; r(m, m); write m, n; Output: 1 or 2 for m? NOTE: CHANGE THE CALL Problem: order of copy back makes a difference; implementation depent. 17

18 Pass-by-value-result c: array[110] of integer; m, n: integer; procedure r(k, j: integer) k := k + 1; j := j + 2; r; m := 5; n := 3; r(m, n); write m, n; Output: 6 5 Problem: order of copy back makes a difference; implementation depent. 18

19 Pass-by-value-result c: array[110] of integer; m, n: integer; procedure r(k, j: integer) k := k + 1; j := j + 2; r; /* set c[m] = m */ m := 2; r(m,c[m]); write c[1], c[2], c[3], c[10]; Output: on entry on exit WHAT ELEMENT OF "c" IS ASSIGNED TO? Problem: When is the address computed for the copy-back operation? At procedure call (procedure entry), just before procedure exit, or somewhere in between? (Example: ADA on entry) 19

20 Pass-by-value-result c: array[110] of integer; m, n: integer; procedure r(k, j: integer) k := k + 1; j := j + 2; r; /* set c[m] = m */ m := 2; r(m,c[m]); write c[1], c[2], c[3], c[10]; Output: on entry on exit WHAT ELEMENT OF "c" IS ASSIGNED TO? Problem: When is the address computed for the copy-back operation? At procedure call (procedure entry), just before procedure exit, or somewhere in between? (Example: ADA on entry) 20

21 Pass-by-value-result c: array[110] of integer; m, n: integer; procedure r(k, j: integer) k := k + 1; j := j + 2; r; /* set c[m] = m */ m := 2; r(m,c[m]); write c[1], c[2], c[3], c[10]; Output: on entry on exit WHAT ELEMENT OF "c" IS ASSIGNED TO? Problem: When is the address computed for the copy-back operation? At procedure call (procedure entry), just before procedure exit, or somewhere in between? (Example: ADA on entry) 21

22 Pass-by-value-result c: array[110] of integer; m, n: integer; procedure r(k, j: integer) k := k + 1; j := j + 2; r; /* set c[m] = m */ m := 2; r(m,c[m]); WHAT ELEMENT OF "c" IS ASSIGNED TO? write c[1], c[2], c[3], c[10]; Output: on entry Applicative order on exit Normal order Problem: When is the address computed for the copy-back operation? At procedure call (procedure entry), just before procedure exit, or somewhere in between? (Example: ADA on entry) 22

23 Comparison: by-value-result vs. by-reference Actual s need to evaluate to L-values (addresses). y: integer; procedure p(x: integer) y := 2; p(y); write y; x := x + 1 x := x + y ref: x and y are ALIASED val-res: x and y are NOT ALIASED Output: pass-by-reference: 6 pass-by-value-result: 5 Note: by-value-result: Requires copying of values (expansive for aggregate values); does not have aliasing, but copy-back order depence. 23

24 Review: Computational Paradigms Imperative: Sequence of state-changing actions. Manipulate an abstract machine with: 1. Variables naming memory locations 2. Arithmetic and logical operations 3. Reference, evaluate, assign operations 4. Explicit control flow statements Fits the von Neumann architecture closely Key operations: Assignment and Control Flow 24

25 Review: Computation Paradigms Functional: Composition of operations on data. No named memory locations Value binding through passing Key operations: Function application and Function abstraction Basis in lambda calculus 25

26 Pure Functional Languages Fundamental concept: application of (mathematical) functions to values 1. Referential transparency: the value of a function application is indepent of the context in which it occurs value of foo(a, b, c) deps only on the values of foo, a, b and c it does not dep on the global state of the computation all vars in function must be local (or s) 2. The concept of assignment is NOT part of function programming no explicit assignment statements variables bound to values only through the association of actual s to formal s in function calls function calls have no side effects thus no need to consider global states 26

27 Pure Functional Languages 3. Control flow is governed by function calls and conditional expressions no iteration recursion is widely used 4. All storage management is implicit needs garbage collection 5. Functions are First Class Values can be returned as the value of an expression can be passed as an argument can be put in a data structure as a value (unnamed) function exists as a value 27

28 Pure Functional Languages A program includes: 1. A set of function definitions 2. An expression to be evaluated E.g. in scheme, > (define length (lambda (x) (if (null? x) 0 (+ 1 (length (rest x)))))) > (length '(A LIST OF 5 THINGS)) 5 28

29 LISP Functional language developed by John McCarthy in the mid 50 s Semantics based on Lambda Calculus All functions operate on lists or symbols called: S-expression Only five basic functions: list functions con, car, cdr, equal, atom, and one conditional construct: cond Useful for list-processing applications Program and data have the same syntactic form S-expression Originally used in Artificial Intelligence 29

30 SCHEME Developed in 1975 by G. Sussman and G. Steele A dialect of LISP Simple syntax, small language Closer to initial semantics of LISP as compared to COMMON LISP Provide basic list processing tools Allows functions to be first class objects 30

31 Next Lecture Things to do: Read Scott, Chapter (4th Edition) or Chapter (3rd Edition), Chapter (4th Edition) or Chapter (3rd Edition) 31

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