Introduction to C++ Professor Hugh C. Lauer CS-2303, System Programming Concepts

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1 Introduction to C++ Professor Hugh C. Lauer CS-2303, System Programming Concepts (Slides include materials from The C Programming Language, 2 nd edition, by Kernighan and Ritchie, Absolute C++, by Walter Savitch, The C++ Programming Language, Special Edition, by Bjarne Stroustrup, and from C: How to Program, 5 th and 6 th editions, by Deitel and Deitel) 1

2 Reading Absolute C++, Chapter 1 Tour of C++ Absolute C++, Chapter 6 Classes and structs Advice Don t panic! All will become clear in time. You don t need to know every detail of C++ to write good programs Focus on programming techniques, not language details 2

3 What Is C++? Worcester Polytechnic Carnegie Institute Mellon Note: Objective C was invented at about the same time, with similar goals. A federation of (at least) four languages C with a few minor syntactic differences Files & I/O Use new and delete instead of malloc() and free() Inline Functions Template C++ For defining and creating templates Object-oriented C++ Classes Inheritance and Multiple Inheritance Function and Operator Overloading References and Reference Parameters Default Arguments Standard Template Library Many tools Templates for containers 3

4 Compiling C++ Use gcc, Eclipse, Visual Studio, etc. See Lab #1 File types.cc,.cp,.cpp,.cpp,.cxx,.c++,.c.h,.h In Linux Some of these have special properties. gcc will recognize C++ file extensions and compile them but won t get the libraries and defaults right g++ will set language to C++ and link to correct libraries by default 4

5 In this Topic A Simple C++ Example C++ Input/Output Similarities and differences between C and C++ Brief tour of Chapters 4 & 5 References and Reference Parameters Namespaces Including scope resolution operator "::" 5

6 A Simple C++ Example // C++ simple example C++ style comments #include <iostream> //for C++ Input and Output int main () { standard output stream object int number3; stream insertion operator std::cout << "Enter a number:"; std::cin >> number3; int number2, sum; std::cout << "Enter another number:"; std::cin >> number2; sum = number2 + number3; std::cout << "Sum is: " << sum <<std::endl; stream extraction operator standard input stream object } return 0; stream manipulator Concatenating insertion operators 6

7 Simple C++ Program (continued) <iostream> Must be included for any program that outputs data to the screen or inputs data from the keyboard using C++ style stream input/output. Replaces <stdio.h> of C C++ requires you to specify the return type, possibly void, for all functions. Specifying a parameter list with empty parentheses is equivalent to specifying a void parameter list in C. 7

8 Notes on Simple C++ Program Stream manipulator std::endl Outputs a newline. Flushes the output buffer Note: std::ends flushes the buffer but does not add newline. The notation std::cout specifies a name (cout) that belongs to the namespace std. To be explained later 8

9 Header Files C++ Standard Library header files Each contains a portion of the Standard Library. Function prototypes for the related functions Definitions of various class types and functions Constants needed by those functions Instruct the compiler on how to interface with library and user-written components. Use #include directive to include class or interface in a program. Note: You may encounter standard header file names ending in.h or.h These are old-style header files They are superseded by the C++ Standard Library header files 9

10 C++ Standard Library header files <iostream> <iomanip> <fstream> <ifstream>, <ofstream> <string> <cstring> <cstdlib> <cmath> <complex>, <numeric> <ctime> <iterator> <vector> <list> <queue> <stack> <deque> <map> <set> <bitset> 10

11 Libraries for Next Assignment For PA4 <ifstream> stream input from file <ofstream> stream output to file <string> String management 11

12 Keywords Shared with C C++ keywords Keywords common to the C and C++ programming languages auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static struct switch typedef union unsigned void volatile while 12

13 New Keywords in C++ C++ keywords C++-only keywords and and_eq asm bitand bitor bool catch class compl const_cast delete dynamic_cast explicit export false friend inline mutable namespace new not not_eq operator or or_eq private protected public reinterpret_cast static_cast template this throw true try typeid typename using virtual wchar_t xor xor_eq 13

14 Types and Declarations Integer and floating point types Much like C bool Values true and false Use instead of C zero and non-zero char and wchar_t char: usually 8 bits, implementation dependent wchar_t: larger character sets Unicode, international character sets, etc. Enumerations Like C Declarations, initializations, typedefs A lot like C Beware! C++ will convert between integers and bool without telling you! 14

15 Ch. 5 Pointers, Arrays, and Structs Pointers like pointers in C May point to any type T or to void Unary '&' operator means create a pointer Unary *' operator means dereference a pointer Simple arrays A lot like C May have any type T as elements Related to pointers as in C Worcester Polytechnic Carnegie Institute Mellon Recommend Advice: Use 0 (i.e.,zero) instead of NULL However, Use vector or valarray containers from Standard Template Library (STL) 15

16 Ch. 5 Pointers, Arrays, and Structs (continued) In C, we introduced a struct as like a Java class, but with no methods In C++, a struct IS A class! The keyword struct can be used wherever the keyword class can be used An vice versa! The ONLY difference is that members of a struct are, by default, public class members are by default private public and private access specifiers may be included anywhere in a struct or a class 16

17 structs and classes (continued) By definition: struct s { is shorthand for class s { public: Stylistic advice: Use struct when ALL members are public; otherwise, use class 17

18 struct example Example: Usage: struct address{ char * name; long int number; char * street; char * town; char state[2]; long zip; }; //requires a semicolon after '}' address jd; // don t need to say struct as we did in C jd.name = Jim Dandy ; jd.number = 61; 18

19 Type Equivalence Two structs are different types, even when the have identical members Example struct S1 { int a; }; struct S2 { int a; }; S2 = S1; // illegal! 19

20 Questions? 20

21 Memory Allocation from Heap new and delete for structs, classes, etc. Example class Table { } Table *p = new Table; Table *q = new Table; delete p; delete q; See 10.1, Absolute C++ //allocate and initialize //new objects from Heap // free objects, clean up, // return memory to Heap 21

22 Memory Allocation (continued) new and delete[] for arrays Example char * s = new char[length]; int * t = new int[count]; s[i] = 'x'; int x = t[j]; delete[] s; delete[] t; // allocate new arrays // from Heap // use arrays as in C // free whole arrays, return // memory to Heap See 10.2 It is usually incorrect to say delete s; delete t; 22

23 Memory Allocation (concluded) Always use new and delete or delete[] Never, ever use malloc() and free() malloc() doesn t correctly initialize objects Especially class objects! free() doesn t correctly destroy objects Especially class objects! delete doesn t correctly destroy individual objects of arrays Must use delete[] 23

24 Questions? 24

25 References in C++ Definition Reference: An Alternative Name for an object BIG difference from Java References are only created in declarations and parameters A reference can only appear where the object itself could have appeared See 8.3 in Absolute C++ 25

26 Simple References void f() { int j = 1; int &r = j; //r and j refer to the exact same int int x = r; // x now is 1 r = 2; // j now is 2 } //f Sometimes, reference declarations are written as int& r1 = k; int k; int &r1 = k; int &r2; extern int &r3; // okay: r1 is initialized // error; initializer missing //okay; r3 defined elsewhere 26

27 Simple References (continued) void g() { int ii = 0; int &rr = ii; rr++; // ii now is 1 int *pp = &rr; } //g // pp now points to ii Note: This declares a pointer exactly as in C, and initializes it with the address of rr (which is another name for ii) 27

28 Example Usage of a Reference int grid[1000]; int rowsize, x, y;... int &element = grid[x*rowsize+y];... /* computations on integer named element */ 28

29 Reference Parameters An alias for its corresponding argument in a function call. & placed after the parameter type in the function prototype and function header Example int &count in a function header Pronounced as count is a reference to an int Parameter name in the called function body actually refers to the original variable in the calling function. 29

30 Reference Parameter Example C version void swap (int *a, int *b) { int temp = *a; *a = *b; *b = temp; } // void swap( ) Hazard: a NULL pointer C++ version void swap (int &a, int &b) { int temp = a; a = b; b = temp; } // void swap( ) Non-hazard: no pointer here 30

31 Notes on References and Pointers Pointers in C do multiple duty Links, as in linked lists and trees Parameters, where the function needs to return a value to an argument provided by the caller Short-hand, a short way of referring to an object that otherwise would need a complex expression C++ introduces references to address both of these cases 31

32 Java vs. C++ References In Java, a reference is a data type. It can be assigned to, compared, copied, stored, etc. Same reference variable can refer to different objects at different times during execution In C++, a reference is an alias for an object It cannot be assigned to; assignment is through the reference to the underlying object Similar to dereferencing a pointer in C It cannot be compared; comparison applies to underlying object A reference always refers to the same object for the duration of its scope 32

33 Repeat Three Times A C++ reference is not a pointer, A C++ reference is not a pointer, A C++ reference is not a pointer, And neither of them resembles a Java reference 33

34 Questions? 34

35 Namespace A logical grouping of names to set them apart from other names to avoid conflicts among similar names See

36 Namespace Example // C++ simple example #include <iostream> //for C++ Input and Output int main () { int number3; std::cout << "Enter a number:"; std::cin >> number3; int number2, sum; std::cout << "Enter another number:"; std::cin >> number2; sum = number2 + number3; std::cout << "Sum is: " << sum <<std::endl; } return 0; From slide #7 36

37 Namespaces (continued) Names cout, cin, endl are declared in <iostream> but are not directly visible to program The are part of namespace std which is visible! Need scope resolution operator ':: To get at things from a namespace 37

38 Scope Resolution Operator std::cout The object cout that is declared in namespace std void BinaryTree::PrintTree The method PrintTree that is declared in class BinaryTree (needed when implementing PrintTree) 38

39 Using Directive #include <iostream> using std::cout; using std::cin; using std::endl; int main() { double sidevalue; cout << "\nenter the side " " length of your cube: "; cin >> sidevalue; cout << "Volume of cube with "side " << sidevalue << " is " << cube( sidevalue ) << endl; return 0; } // int main() Adds cout, cin, endl from namespace std to current scope These names may now be used without qualification 39

40 Common C++ Programming Error Forgetting to say Using You get undeclared identifiers Even though you include the appropriate header file! Using std Bad style Makes all names in namespace std visible whether you need them or not! 40

41 Questions? 41

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