IA010: Principles of Programming Languages

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1 IA Subroutines 1 IA010: Principles of Programming Languages 5. Subroutines Jan Obdržálek Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Brno

2 Subroutines IA Subroutines 2 Subprograms, functions, procedures,... principal mechanism for control abstraction details of subroutine s computation are replaced by a statement that calls the subroutine increases readability: emphasizes logical structure, while hiding the low-level details facilitate code reuse, saving memory coding time subroutines vs OOP methods: differ in the way they are called methods are associated with classes and objects

3 Outline IA Subroutines 3 Fundamentals of subroutines Parameter-passing methods Overloaded and generic subroutines Functions specifics Coroutines

4 Fundamentals of subroutines IA Subroutines 4

5 Subroutine characteristics IA Subroutines 5 each subroutine has a single entry point the calling program unit is suspended during subroutine execution (so only one subroutine is in execution at any given time) control returns to the caller once subroutine execution is terminated alternatives: coroutines concurrent units

6 Basic definitions IA Subroutines 6 subroutine definition describes the interface and actions subroutine call an explicit request for the subroutine to be executed active subroutine has been executed, but has not yet completed its execution subroutine header part of the definition, specifies: the kind of the subroutine (function/procedure) a name (if not anonymous) a list of parameters parameter profile the number, order and types of formal parameters protocol parameter profile + return type

7 Procedures and functions IA Subroutines 7 procedures do not return values in effect define new statements as functions: can return a value using global variables two-way communication through parameters functions return values function call is, in effect, replaced by the return value as procedures: e.g. using the void return type modelled after mathematical function (the model is faithful if no side-effects are allowed)

8 Parameters Mechanism for passing data between a subroutine and its caller. (another option: through global variables) formal parameters (parameters) specified in the subroutine header sometimes called dummy variables actual parameters (arguments) specified in the subroutine call statement binding of actual parameters to formal parameters positional parameters by position (first to first,... ) keyword parameters the formal parameter name is explicitly given in a call (in any order) attack(weapon = my_weapon, force = my_force) when combined (e.g. Ada, Fortran95+, Python) once a keyword parameter appears, all remaining parameters must be keyworded IA Subroutines 8

9 Default parameter values A default value is used when the actual parameter is not given. both positional and keyword parameters def compute_pay(income, exemptions = 1, tax_rate) pay = compute_pay( , tax_rate = 0.15) once a default parameter is omitted, all remaining formal parameters must be keyworded positional parameters only parameters with default values must be listed last float compute_pay(float income, float tax_rate, int exemptions = 1) pay = compute_pay( , 0.15); once a default parameter is ommitted, all remaining must have default values IA Subroutines 9

10 Variable number of parameters IA Subroutines 10 problematic (type checking?) can be useful (e.g. printf in C) C the programmer must explicitly process the parameters: int printf(const char *format,...); accessed using va_list (stdarg.h) C# variable number of parameters of the same type public void DisplayList(params int[] list) { foreach (int next in list) { Console.WriteLine("Next value {0}", next); } }

11 Parameter-passing methods IA Subroutines 11

12 Parameter-passing methods Semantic models 1 in mode (receive data from the actual parameters) 2 out mode (transmit data to the actual parameters) 3 inout mode Example A subroutine takes two arrays list1 and list2, adds list1 to list2 and returns the result as revised list2. Also it returns a new array created from both arrays. in: list1, inout: list2, out: the new list Conceptual models copy the value transmit the access path (usually using a pointer or a reference) Implementation models coming next... IA Subroutines 12

13 Pass-by-Value IA Subroutines 13 for in mode parameters the value of the actual parametr initializes the corresponding formal parameter usually implemented using copying (write-protection required if implemented using the access path) advantages fast for scalar values disadvantages: space needs to be allocated for the formal parameter time and space needed to copy large objects (e.g. arrays)

14 Pass-by-Result IA Subroutines 14 for out mode parameters no value is passed to the subroutine the formal parameter acts as a normal variable after completion, its value is copied to the actual paramter the actual paramter must be a variable advantages and disadvantages: as for call-by value, plus parameter collision binding time choice

15 Pass-by-Result problems IA Subroutines 15 Parameter collision void Fixer(out int x, out int y) { // C# x = 17; y = 35; }... f.fixer(out a, out a); Binding time choice (call vs return) void DoIt(out int x, int index){ // C# x = 17; index = 42; }... sub = 21; f.doit(out list[sub], out sub);

16 Pass-by-Value-Result IA Subroutines 16 for inout mode parameters combination of the previous two sometimes called pass-by-copy disadvantages follow the from pass-by-value and pass-by result (time and space requirements)

17 Pass-by-Reference IA Subroutines 17 for inout mode parameters the access path (usually an address) is transmited the actual parameter is effectively shared with the subroutine advantages: very efficient (time and space) disadvantages: slower access (indirect addressing) risk of unintentionally changing actual parammeters (if used for one-way communication) can create aliases (see next slide)

18 Pass-by-Reference and aliases Collision between actual parameters: void foo(int &bar, int &baz)... foo(ouch, ouch) Collision between array elements: (for i=j) foo(list[i], list[j]) Collision between arrays and its elements: bar(list, list[i]) Collision between formal parameters and non-local variables: int *global; // C void main() {... sub(global);... } void sub(int *param) { IA Subroutines 18

19 Pass-by-Name IA Subroutines 19 for inout mode parameters very different from the previous models actual parameters are textually substituted for the formal parameters the referencing environment must also be passed to the subroutine inefficient, hard to implement complicated, decreases readability and reliability Algol60, also available (but not default) in Scala nowadays not used (exception: macros)

20 Jensen s device IA Subroutines 20 Exploits pass-by-name and side-effects. real procedure Sum(k, l, u, ak) value l, u; integer k, l, u; real ak; comment k and ak are passed by name; begin real s; s := 0; for k := l step 1 until u do s := s + ak; Sum := s end; the code above computes u k=l a k is general: summation over an array: Sum(i, 1, 100, V[i]) double summation: Sum(i,l,m, Sum(j,l,n,A[i,j])) summing squares: Sum(i,1,100,i*i)

21 Parameter passing in common PLs IA Subroutines 21 C pass-by-value pass-by-reference achieved using pointers if formal parameters are pointers to constants, the actual parameters are write-protected C++ also contains a reference type (implicitly dereferenced) (pass-by-reference semantics) write-protected if declared const void fun(const int &p1, int p2, int &p3) {... } Java pass-by-value for all parameters in effect pass-by-reference (objects are accessed only through references) object reference passed as a parameter cannot be changed in the subroutine (but the referenced object can) scalars cannot be passed by reference

22 Parameter passing in common PLs IA Subroutines 22 Ada, Fortran 95 each parameter can be specified to be in, out, or inout C# pass-by-value by default pass-by-reference can be requested using ref void sumer(ref int oldsum, int newone) {... }... sumer(ref sum, newvalue); out parameters: passed by reference (declared out)

23 IA Subroutines 23 Parameter passing in Python pass-by-assignment all data values are objects (each variable is a reference to an object) object references are passed by value assignment does not affect the caller def foo(x): x = x + 1 x = 42 foo(x) # x = 42 but for mutable objects the change is visible from the outside def bar(list): list[2] = 42 list = [1,2,3] bar(list) # list = [1,2,42]

24 IA Subroutines 24 Type checking parameters big impact on program reliability nowadays almost always enforced (exceptions: Perl, JavaScript, PHP) historically not: Fortran 77, early C in C89 it is possible to choose whether the parameters will be checked two ways of defining functions double sin(x) double x; {... } not type checked double sin(double x) {... } type checked C99 and C++ support only the second method

25 Passing multidimensional arrays IA Subroutines 25 subroutine needs to know the array dimensions for addressing (at least the number of columns) C/C++ separate compilation the mapping function is (address(m[i, j]) = address(m[0,0]) + i*columns + j) the number of columns can be given in the formal parameter: void fun(int matrix[][10]) {.. } void main() { int mat[5][10];... fun(mat);... } alternative: pass a reference to the array + its dimensions

26 Passing multidimensional arrays 2 IA Subroutines 26 Ada for unconstrained arrays we have information about index ranges: type Mat_Type is array (Integer range <>, Integer range <>) of Float; Mat_1 : Mat_Type(1..100, 1..20); function Sumer(Mat : in Mat_Type) return Float is Sum : Float := 0.0; begin for Row in Mat'range(1) loop for Col in Mat'range(2) loop Sum := Sum + Mat(Row, Col); end loop; -- for Col... end loop; -- for Row... return Sum; end Sumer;

27 Overloaded and generic subroutines IA Subroutines 27

28 Overloaded subroutines IA Subroutines 28 A subroutine is overloaded if there exists (in the same referencing environment) a different subroutine of the same name. overloaded subroutines must have a different protocol (number, order or types of parameters, or a different return type) examples: C++, Java, Ada, C# typical use case: constructors problem 1: coercion a call can match multiple parameter profiles in that case there must be some order on the subroutines complicated! (e.g. C++ [Stroustrup97]) problem 2: default values

29 Different kinds of polymorphism IA Subroutines 29 Ad hoc polymorphism Overloaded programs. When activated, the subroutine definition is chosen which corresponds to the actual parameters. Subtype polymorphism OOP. A variable of type T can contain an object of any subclass of T. Parametric polymorphism a subroutine has type expressions as formal parameters the concrete types are instantiated on activation (different activations may use different types) a single definition, independent of type subroutines of such kind are called generic subroutines

30 Generic functions in C++ Template functions template <class Type> Type max(type first, Type second) { return first > second? first : second; } when instatied, Type is replaced by a concrete type (e.g. int or char) for which > is defined implicit instantiation when a function is called when an address is obtained using & int a, b, c; char d, e, f;... c = max(a, b); f = max(d, e); a copy of code is generated for each of type used IA Subroutines 30

31 A generic sort function IA Subroutines 31 template <class Type> void generic_sort(type list[], int len) { int top, bottom; Type temp; for (top = 0; top < len - 2; top++) for (bottom = top + 1; bottom < len - 1; bottom++) if (list[top] > list[bottom]) { temp = list[top]; list[top] = list[bottom]; list[bottom] = temp; } //** end of if (list[top]... } //** end of generic_sort use: float flt_list[100];... generic_sort(flt_list, 100);

32 Generic functions as macros? IA Subroutines 32 Let s define the max function as a macro: #define max(a, b) ((a) > (b))? (a) : (b) this max seems to behave as a generic function but does not for well with side-effects: 1 take the following code: max(x++, y) 2 code generated by the preprocessor: ((x++) > (y)? (x++) : (y)) 3 x can be incremented twice!

33 Java 5.0 generic methods public static <T> T foo(t[] list) {... }... foo<string>(mylist); differences from C++ generic parameters must be classes (and arrays must have elements of a primitive type... ) just a single instance of the code (which operates on objects of the Object class) we can restrict the set of classes which can be used in place of the generic type public static <T extends Comparable> T doit(t[] list) {... } wildcard types void printcollection(collection<?> c) { for (Object e: c) { System.out.println(e); } } IA Subroutines 33

34 Generic methods in C# 2005 IA Subroutines 34 simillar to Java 5.0 no support for wildcard types the type can be omitted (if the compiler can infer the type from the actual parameter) class MyClass { public static T Foo<T>(T p1) {... } } Use: int myint = MyClass.Foo(17); string mystr = MyClass.Foo('apples'); // calls Foo<int> // calls Foo<string>

35 Functions specifics IA Subroutines 35

36 Functions specifics IA Subroutines 36 problems with side effects (if called in expressions) aliasing problems etc. solution (e.g. Ada): only in mode formal parameters return value type C: arrays and functions are not return types (pointers needed in these cases) Ada, Python, Ruby: value of any type can be returned (Ada cannot return functions, as functions are not types) Java and C#: methods cannot be returned (as methods are not types) number of returned values usually just one Ruby: 0 (nil), 1, >1 (array) F#: n-tuple

37 Coroutines IA Subroutines 37

38 Coroutines the master-slave relationship does not apply symmetric relationship among subroutines have multiple entry points remember their state between activations (history sensitive) can interrupt their execution by resuming a different coroutine sub coroutine_1(){... resume coroutine_2();... resume coroutine_3();... } there is only one coroutine active in any given moment typical scenarios: a card game systems simulation IA Subroutines 38

39 Coroutines II IA Subroutines 39 Example ([Sebesta]) historically in Simula and Modula-2 modern languages: e.g. Lua or Ruby (fibers)

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