# Programming and Data Structures

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1 Programming and Data Structures Teacher: Sudeshna Sarkar Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

2 #include <stdio.h> int main() { int n; scanf( %d,&n); printf( %d,n); return 0; } In and Out only

3 #include <stdio.h> int main() { int n; scanf( %d,&n); printf( %d,n+n); return 0; }

4 #include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, nsquare; scanf( %d,&n);//read the value of n nsquare = n*n; printf( %d, nsquare); return 0; }

5 #include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, nsquare; scanf( %d,&n);//read the value of n nsquare = n*n; printf( Square of n is %d\n, nsquare); return 0; }

6 #include <stdio.h> Integers variables declared before their usage. int main() Comments within /*.. */ { int n, nsquare; scanf( %d, &n);/* Read the value of n */ nsquare = n*n; Input statement for reading printf( %d, nsquare); variable from the keyboard return 0; } Control character for printing value of m in decimal digits.

7 #include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, nsquare; scanf( %d,&n);//read the value of n nsquare = n*n; printf( Square of %d is %d\n, n, nsquare); return 0; }

8 #include <stdio.h> #define PI double area_of_circle(float); double area_of_circle (float { return PI*radius*radius; } A complete C program Include header files radius) Declare global variables, constants and function prototypes Function bodies int main() { int squareside; There must be a main double area; function in any C program. scanf( %d, &squareside); area= area_of_circle(squareside/2); printf( Area of the circle enclosing the square of side %d is: %f\n, squareside, area); return 0; }

9 #include <stdio.h> #define PI double area_of_circle(float); double area_of_circle (float { return PI*radius*radius; } A complete C program Preprocessor statement. Replace PI by before compilation. radius) Example of a function called as per need from main program. int main() { int squareside; main() function: start of execution double area; scanf( %d, &squareside); Function called area= area_of_circle(squareside/2); printf( Area of the circle enclosing the square of side %d is: %f\n, squareside, area); return 0; }

10 Basic Data Types in C int :: integer quantity Typically occupies 4 bytes (32 bits) in memory. char :: single character Typically occupies 1 byte (8 bits) in memory. float :: floating-point number (a number with a decimal point) Typically occupies 4 bytes (32 bits) in memory. double :: double-precision floating-point number Precision refers to the number of significant digits after the decimal point.

11 Program to Multiply Two Floating Point Numbers #include <stdio.h> int main() { double firstnumber, secondnumber, productoftwonumbers; printf("enter two numbers: "); // Stores two floating point numbers in variable firstnumber and secondnumber respectively scanf("%f %f", &firstnumber, &secondnumber); // Performs multiplication and stores the result in variable productoftwonumbers productoftwonumbers = firstnumber Output: * secondnumber; } // Result up to 2 decimal point is displayed using %.2f Enter two numbers: 2.4 printf("product = %.2f", productoftwonumbers); 1.12 return 0; Product = 2.69

12 The C Character Set The C language alphabet: Uppercase letters A to Z Lowercase letters a to z Digits 0 to 9 Certain special characters:! # % ^ & * ( ) - _ + = ~ [ ] \ ; : { },. < > /? blank

13 Identifiers Identifiers Names given to various program elements (variables, constants, functions, etc.) May consist of letters, digits and the underscore ( _ ) character, with no space between. First character must be a letter. An identifier can be arbitrary long. Some C compilers recognize only the first few characters of the name (16 or 31). Case sensitive area, AREA and Area are all different.

14 Valid and Invalid Identifiers Valid identifiers X abc simple_interest a123 LIST stud_name Empl_1 Empl_2 avg_empl_salary Invalid identifiers 10abc hello simple interest (area) %rate

15 Keywords Keywords Reserved words that have standard, predefined meanings in C. Cannot be used as identifiers. OK within comments. Standard C keywords: auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static struct switch typedef union unsigned void volatile while

16 Augmented Data Type Some of the basic data types can be augmented by using certain data type qualifiers: short long signed unsigned Typical examples: short int long int unsigned int

17 Integer type Type Storage size (in byte) Value range char to 127 or 0 to 255 unsigned char 1 0 to 255 signed char to 127 int 2 or 4-32,768 to 32,767 or -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 unsigned int 2 or 4 0 to 65,535 or 0 to 4,294,967,295 short 2-32,768 to 32,767 unsigned short 2 0 to 65,535 long 4-2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 unsigned long 4 0 to 4,294,967,295

18 Integer type unsigned char 1 byte 8 bits to to V signed char 1 byte 8 bits to to

19 Floating-point type Type Storage size (in byte) Value range Precision float 4 1.2E-38 to 3.4E+38 6 decimal places double 8 2.3E-308 to 1.7E decimal places long double E-4932 to 1.1E decimal places E or e means 10 to the power of

20 ASCII Table

21 Extended ASCII Table (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

22 Some Examples of Data Types int char float 0, 25, -156, 12345, a, A, *, /, 23.54, , E12, 1.234e-5 E or e means 10 to the power of

23 C Program to Find ASCII Value of a Character #include <stdio.h> int main() { char c; printf("enter a character: "); Output Enter a character: G ASCII value of G = 71 // Reads character input from the user scanf( %c", &c); // %d displays the integer value of a character // %c displays the actual character printf("ascii value of %c = %d", c, c); return 0; }

24 Constants Constants Numeric Constants Character Constants integer floating-point single character A constant is a value or an identifier whose value cannot be altered in a program. string

25 Integer Constants Consists of a sequence of digits, with possibly a plus or a minus sign before it. Embedded spaces, commas and non-digit characters are not permitted between digits. Maximum and minimum values (for 32-bit representations) Maximum :: Minimum ::

26 Floating-point Constants Can contain fractional parts. Very large or very small numbers can be represented can be represented as 2.3e7 Two different notations: 1. Decimal notation 25.0, ,.84, Exponential (scientific) notation 3.45e23, 0.123e-12, 123E2 e means 10 to the power of

27 Single Character Constants Contains a single character enclosed within a pair of single quote marks ( ). Examples :: 2, +, Z Some special backslash characters \n new line \t horizontal tab \ single quote \ double quote \\ backslash \0 null

28 String Constants Sequence of characters enclosed in double quotes ( ). The characters may be letters, numbers, special characters and blank spaces. Examples: nice, Good Morning, 3+6, 3, C Differences from character constants: C and C are not equivalent. C has an equivalent integer value while C does not.

29 An identifier also can be defined as a constant. const double PI = 3.14 Here, PI is a constant. Basically what it means is that, PI and 3.14 is same for this program.

30 Variables A variable is a container to hold data. To indicate the storage area, each variable should be given a unique name (identifier). Variable names are just the symbolic representation of a memory location. int speed = 10; The value of a variable can be changed, hence the name 'variable'. In C programming, you have to declare a variable before you can use it.

31 Example int a, b, c; char x; a = 3; b = 50; c = a b; x = d ; b = 20; a = a + 1; x = G ; Variables Constants

32 Declaration of Variables There are two purposes: 1. It tells the compiler what the variable name is. 2. It specifies what type of data the variable will hold. General syntax: data-type variable-list; Examples: int velocity, distance; int a, b, c, d; float temp; char flag, option;

33 Address and Content speed int speed; speed=234; speed 234 &speed 1350 Binary of 234 Every variable has an address (in memory), and its contents.

34 Address and Content In C terminology, in an expression speed refers to the contents of the memory location. &speed refers to the address of the memory location. Examples: printf ( %f %f %f, speed, time, distance); scanf ( %f %f, &speed, &time);

35 An Example #include <stdio.h> int main() { float speed, time, distance; Address of speed scanf ( %f %f, &speed, &time); distance = speed * time; printf ( \n The distance traversed is: \n, distance); return 0; Content of speed }

36 Assignment Statement Used to assign values to variables, using the assignment operator (=). General syntax: variable_name = expression; Examples: velocity = 20; b = 15; temp = 12.5; A = A + 10; v = u + f * t; s = u * t * f * t * t;

37 Assignment Statement Assignment during declaration int speed = 30; char flag = y ; Multiple variable assignment a = b = c = 5; flag1 = flag2 = y ; speed = flow = 20.0;

38 Operators in Expressions Operators Arithmetic Operators Relational Operators Logical Operators

39 Arithmetic Operators X= 25; Y=23; Addition :: + Subtraction :: Division :: / Multiplication :: * Modulus :: % X + Y 48 X Y 2 X * Y 575 X / Y? X % Y??

40 Program to Compute Quotient and Remainder #include <stdio.h> int main(){ int dividend, divisor, quotient, remainder; Output printf("enter dividend: "); scanf("%d", &dividend); printf("enter divisor: "); scanf( %d", &divisor); Enter dividend: 25 Enter divisor: 4 Quotient = 6 Remainder = 1 // Computes quotient quotient = dividend / divisor; // Computes remainder remainder = dividend % divisor; printf("quotient = %d\n", quotient); printf("remainder = %d", remainder); } return 0;

41 Operator Precedence In decreasing order of priority 1. Parentheses :: ( ) 2. Unary minus :: 5 3. Multiplication, Division, and Modulus 4. Addition and Subtraction For operators of the same priority, evaluation is from left to right as they appear. Parenthesis may be used to change the precedence of operator evaluation.

42 Examples: Arithmetic expressions v = u + f t; v = u+(f t); X = x y / z X = (x y)/z A = a + b c d / e A = b c + d % e A = ((a+b) ((c d)/e)) A = ((( b) c)+(d%e))

43 Integer Arithmetic When the operands in an arithmetic expression are integers, the expression is called integer expression, and the operation is called integer arithmetic. Integer arithmetic always yields integer values.

44 Real Arithmetic Involving only real or floating-point operands (including double, long double). Since floating-point values are rounded to the number of significant digits permissible, the final value is an approximation of the final result. A = 22/7*7*7 = (((22/7)*7)*7) = =(((22*7)/7)*7) = 154 The modulus operator cannot be used with real operands.

45 Arithmetic integer /real An expression contains only integer operands Integer arithmetic will be performed. An expression contains only real operands Real arithmetic will be performed. An expression contains integer and real both the operands Real arithmetic will be performed.

46 Type casting A faulty reciprocal finder #include <stdio.h> The division 1/n is of integers (quotient). int main () The format %d is for printing integers. { int n; scanf("%d",&n); printf("%d\n",1/n); return 0; }

47 Type casting #include <stdio.h> int main () { int n; scanf("%d",&n); printf("%f\n",1.0/n); return 0; } #include <stdio.h> int main () { int n; float x; scanf("%d",&n); x=(float)1/n; printf("%f\n",x); return 0; }

48 Type casting Integer to real int a=10; float b; b=(float)a; Real to real float b; double c=3.14; b=(float)c; Real to integer int a; float b=3.14; a=(int)b; Real to real float b; double c; c=22.0/7.0; b=(float)c;

49 #include <stdio.h> int main() { } int number; Program to Print an Integer // printf() dislpays the formatted output printf("enter an integer: "); // scanf() reads the formatted input and stores them scanf("%d", &number); // printf() displays the formatted output printf("you entered: %d", number); return 0; Output: Enter a integer: 25 You entered: 25

50 #include <stdio.h> int main() { } long long n; int count = 0; printf("enter an integer: "); scanf("%lld", &n); while(n!= 0) { } // n = n/10 n /= 10; ++count; Program to Count Number of Digits in an Integer Output printf("number of digits: %d", count); Enter an integer: 3452 Number of digits: 4

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