# Algorithms and Java basics: pseudocode, variables, assignment, and interactive programs

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1 Algorithms and Java basics: pseudocode, variables, assignment, and interactive programs CSC 1051 Algorithms and Data Structures I Dr. Mary-Angela Papalaskari Department of Computing Sciences Villanova University Course website: Some slides in this presentation are adapted from the slides accompanying: Java Software Solutions by Lewis & Loftus Introduction to Programming in Java: An Interdisciplinary Approach by Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne

2 Algorithms in everyday life Source:

3 Algorithms An algorithm is a specific set of instructions for carrying out a procedure or solving a problem, usually with the requirement that the procedure terminate at some point. Specific algorithms sometimes also go by the name method, procedure, or technique. The word "algorithm" is a distortion of al-khwārizmī [named after Muhammad ibn al-khwārizmī], a Persian mathematician who wrote an influential treatise about algebraic methods. Sources: and Wikipedia ( )

4 Algorithm Example: Input-Compute-Output pattern GPA problem: Write a program that computes and outputs the GPA, given the credits and quality points earned. Pseudocode: describe steps in simple, unambiguous language Variables: qp, credits, gpa Algorithm: 1. qp = input from user 2. credits = input from user 3. gpa = qp / credits 4. Print gpa

5 Java Program è //************************************************ // GPA.java Author: Joyce/Papalaskari // Demonstrates the use of Scanner. ************************************************** import java.util.scanner; Algorithm è Variables: qp, credits, gpa Algorithm: 1. qp = input from user 2. credits = input from user 3. gpa = qp / credits 4. Print gpa public class GPA { public static void main (String[] args) // // Inputs quality points and credits and calcu // { double qp, credits, gpa; Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in); // input qp System.out.print ("Enter Quality Points > ") qp = scan.nextint(); // input credits System.out.print ("Enter Credits > "); credits = scan.nextint(); // calculate GPA gpa = qp / credits; Next: A closer look at variables & input in Java } } // print GPA System.out.println ("\n\tgpa: " + gpa);

6 Interactive Programs Input/Output Programs can use data obtained during runtime, eg: int age; String name; Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in); output method System.out.print( Enter your name ); name = scan.next(); input method System.out.print( Enter your age ); age = scan.nextint(); );

7 Interactive Programs Input/Output In Java, you first need to create a Scanner object int age; String name; Scanner object Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print( Enter your name ); name = scan.next(); input method (for String) System.out.print( Enter your age ); age = scan.nextint(); input method (for int)

8 Interactive Programs Input/Output The Scanner class is part of the java.util class library, and must be imported into a program in order to be used The import statement goes at beginning of your program (above class definition) import java.util.scanner; public class GPA { public static void main (Stri //

9 Interactive Programs Input/Output Summary: 1. import the Scanner class, i.e., add this before the class definition of your program: import java.util.scanner; 2. In your main method, before doing any input, declare and initialize the Scanner object Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in); 3. Input away! System.out.print( Enter your name ); name = scan.next(); System.out.print( Enter your age ); age = scan.nextint();string

10 Interactive Programs Input/Output import java.util.scanner; Example public class TellMeAboutYou { public static void main(string[] args) { int age; String name; Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter your name"); name = scan.next(); System.out.print("Enter your age"); age = scan.nextint(); Enter your name: Fiona Enter your age: 17 Pleased to meet you, Fiona! System.out.println("Pleased to meet you, " + name + "!"); } } name = scan.nextline(); Inspired by:

11 Scanner methods nextint() à input an int nextdouble() à input a double nextline() à input a String (until end of line) next() à input a String token (one word or other delimited chunk of text) White space (space, tab, new line) are used to separate input tokens

12 Variables & Assignment OVERVIEW Variable. A name that refers to a value of declared type. Literal. Programming language representation of a value. Assignment statement. Associates a value with a variable. type variable int age; declaration statement age = 18; assignment statement double x = 3.2, y = -0.80; literal combined declaration and assignment statement final int INCHES_PER_FOOT = 12; constant declaration (always initializes value) String name = scan.nextline(); input from user

13 Variable Declaration A variable is a name for a location of data in memory A variable must be declared by specifying the variable's name and the type of information that it will hold data type variable name int age; double x, y; String name;

14 Some types of data in Java type set of values literal values operations char String characters sequences of characters 'A' "Hello World" jackie123" compare concatenate int integers add, subtract, multiply, divide,mod double floating-point numbers e23 add, subtract, multiply, divide boolean truth values true false and, or, not

15 Assignment Statement Changes the value of a variable The assignment operator is the = sign total = 55 - discount; The expression on the right is evaluated and the result is stored in the variable on the left

16 Combined declaration and assignment A variable can be given an initial value in the declaration int age = 18; double x = 3.2, y = -0.80; String name = scan.nextline();

17 Combined declaration and assignment A variable can be given an initial value in the declaration - a new value can be assigned later: int age = 18; double x = 3.2, y = -0.80; String name = scan.nextline(); age = 19; x = x + 0.5; name = scan.nextline();

18 Combined declaration and assignment Note: CANNOT declare twice A variable can be given an initial value in the declaration - a new value can be assigned later: int age = 18; double x = 3.2, y = -0.80; String name = scan.nextline(); int age = 19; Error: declaring variable age again

19 Tracing the values of variables after each statement. age int age = 18; double x; String name = "Sherlock"; age = 19; x = 0.5; x = x + 0.2; name = name + "Holmes"; x? name Sherlock SherlockHolmes

20 Trace: TRY THIS: int a, b; a = 3; b = 4; int c = a; a = b; b = 5; b = c; Final values: a b c

21 Assignment operator Assignment ( = ) copies the value of the right side into the memory location associated with the left side It does not set up an ongoing equivalence int davesage = 21; int suesage = davesage; davesage = 22; System.out.println (davesage); // prints 22 System.out.println (suesage); // prints 21

22 CONSTANTS: like variables, but value cannot change declare using final modifier: final int INCHES_PER_FOOT = 12; final double LBS_PER_KG = 2.2; Convention: Use UPPER_CASE identifiers

23 Variables & Assignment SUMMARY Variable. A name that refers to a value of declared type. Literal. Programming language representation of a value. Assignment statement. Associates a value with a variable. type variable int age; declaration statement age = 18; assignment statement double x = 3.2, y = -0.80; literal combined declaration and assignment statement final int INCHES_PER_FOOT = 12; constant declaration (always initializes value) String name = scan.nextline(); input from user

24 Arithmetic Operators Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Remainder + - * / % If either or both operands used by an arithmetic operator are floating point (e.g., type double), then the result is a floating point

25 Example int feet = 25; int inches = feet * INCHES_PER_FOOT; int seconds = 143; int minutes = seconds / 60; int remainingseconds = seconds % 60;

26 Division and Remainder If both operands are integers (e.g., type int), the division result is an integer (the fractional part is discarded): Integer Division: Remainder: 14 / / / 16 8 / % % % 16 8 % 12

27 Operator Precedence example: result = total + count / max offset; What is the order of evaluation of sub-expressions? 1. Multiplication, division, remainder 2. addition, subtraction, string concatenation Operators with the same precedence: left àright Use parentheses to override default order more examples: a + b + c + d + e a / (b + c) - d % e a b / c + d * e a / (b * (c + (d - e)))

28 Increment and Decrement The increment operator (++) adds one to its operand The decrement operator (--) subtracts one from its operand The statement count++; is functionally equivalent to count = count + 1;

29 Review Java Program è //************************************************ // GPA.java Author: Joyce/Papalaskari // Demonstrates the use of Scanner. ************************************************** import java.util.scanner; Algorithm è Variables: qp, credits, gpa Algorithm: 1. qp = input from user 2. credits = input from user 3. gpa = qp / credits 4. Print gpa public class GPA { public static void main (String[] args) // // Inputs quality points and credits and calcu // { double qp, credits, gpa; Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in); // input qp System.out.print ("Enter Quality Points > ") qp = scan.nextint(); // input credits System.out.print ("Enter Credits > "); credits = scan.nextint(); // calculate GPA gpa = qp / credits; } } // print GPA System.out.println ("\n\tgpa: " + gpa);

30 Writing an algorithm in pseudocode List the variables used. List the steps for solving the problem, in order. Try to be brief and unambiguous; use Java expressions only when it is simpler to specify a step in java than in English. Variables: qp, credits, gpa Algorithm: 1. qp = input from user 2. credits = input from user 3. gpa = qp / credits 4. Print gpa

31 Example Write an algorithm to solve the following problem: Input values representing a time duration in hours, minutes, and seconds and then calculate and output the equivalent total number of seconds.

32 Example Write an algorithm to solve the following problem: Input a value representing a number of seconds, then calculate and output the equivalent amount of time as a combination of hours, minutes, and seconds.

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