ECE232: Hardware Organization and Design

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1 ECE232: Hardware Organization and Design Lecture 4: Logic Operations and Introduction to Conditionals Adapted from Computer Organization and Design, Patterson & Hennessy, UCB

2 Overview Previously examined arithmetic operations R and I instructions formats Microprocessors also require logic operations NAND, OR, AND, etc Operations performed in the ALU Similar to logic operations Big picture Logic and arithmetic operations are fundamental to computer operation Introduction to conditional operations How computers make choices ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 2

3 Typical Operations (little change since 1960) Data Movement Arithmetic Shift Logical Control (Jump/Branch) Subroutine Linkage Interrupt Graphics (MMX) Load (from memory) Store (to memory) register-to-register move input (from I/O device) output (to I/O device) push, pop (to/from stack) integer (binary + decimal) or FP Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide shift left/right, rotate left/right not, and, or, set, clear unconditional, conditional call, return trap, return parallel subword ops (e.g., 4-16 bit add) ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 3

4 MIPS Logical Instructions Instruction Example Meaning Comment and and \$1,\$2,\$3 \$1 = \$2 & \$3 3 reg. operands; Logical AND or or \$1,\$2,\$3 \$1 = \$2 \$3 3 reg. operands; Logical OR xor xor \$1,\$2,\$3 \$1 = \$2 \$3 3 operands; Logical XOR and immediate andi \$1,\$2,10 \$1 = \$2 & 10 Logical AND reg,constant or immediate ori \$1,\$2,10 \$1 = \$2 10 Logical OR reg, constant xor immediate xori \$1, \$2,10 \$1 = \$2 10 Logical XOR reg, constant shift left logical sll \$1,\$2,10 \$1 = \$2 << 10 Shift left by constant shift right logical srl \$1,\$2,10 \$1 = \$2 >> 10 Shift right by constant ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 4

5 Logical Operations Instructions for bitwise manipulation Operation C Java MIPS Shift left << << sll Shift right >> >>> srl Bitwise AND & & and, andi Bitwise OR or, ori Bitwise NOT ~ ~ nor Useful for extracting and inserting groups of bits in a word ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 5

6 Shift Operations op rs rt rd shamt funct 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 6 bits shamt: how many positions to shift Shift left logical Shift left and fill with 0 bits sll by i bits multiplies by 2 i Shift right logical Shift right and fill with 0 bits srl by i bits divides by 2 i (unsigned only) ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 6

7 AND Operations Useful to mask bits in a word Select some bits, clear others to 0 and \$t0, \$t1, \$t2 \$t2 \$t1 \$t ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 7

8 OR Operations Useful to include bits in a word Set some bits to 1, leave others unchanged or \$t0, \$t1, \$t2 \$t2 \$t1 \$t ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 8

9 NOT Operations Useful to invert bits in a word Change 0 to 1, and 1 to 0 MIPS has NOR 3-operand instruction a NOR b == NOT ( a OR b ) nor \$t0, \$t1, \$zero Register 0: always read as zero \$t1 \$t ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 9

10 MIPS Registers and Usage Name Register number Usage \$zero 0 the constant value 0 \$at 1 reserved for assembler \$v0-\$v1 2-3 values for results and expression evaluation \$a0-\$a3 4-7 arguments \$t0-\$t temporary registers \$s0-\$s saved registers \$t8-\$t more temporary registers \$k0-\$k reserved for Operating System kernel \$gp 28 global pointer \$sp 29 stack pointer \$fp 30 frame pointer \$ra 31 return address ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 10

11 Conditional Operations Branch to a labeled instruction if a condition is true Otherwise, continue sequentially beq rs, rt, L1 if (rs == rt) branch to instruction labeled L1; bne rs, rt, L1 if (rs!= rt) branch to instruction labeled L1; j L1 unconditional jump to instruction labeled L1 ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 11

12 { MIPS Conditional Branch Instructions Conditional branches allow decision making beq R1, R2, LABEL if R1==R2 goto LABEL bne R3, R4, LABEL if R3!=R4 goto LABEL beq \$s1, \$s2, 25 if (\$s1==\$s2) PC = PC *25 else PC = PC + 4 Example C Code if (i==j) goto L1; f = g + h; L1: f = f - i; Address of next sequential instruction Offset in bytes Assembly beq \$s3, \$s4, L1 add \$s0, \$s1, \$s2 L1: sub \$s0, \$s0, \$s3 ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 12

13 Binary Representation - Branch 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 16 bits op rs rt offset Branch instructions use I-Format offset is added to PC when branch is taken beq r0, r1, offset has the effect: Conversion to byte offset if (r0==r1) pc = pc (offset << 2) else pc = pc + 4; Offset is specified in instruction words (why?) What is the range of the branch target addresses? ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 13

14 Binary Representation - Jump 6 bits 26 bits op address Jump Instruction uses J-Format (op=2) What happens during execution? PC = PC[31:28] : (IR[25:0] << 2) Concatenate upper 4 bits of PC to form complete 32-bit address Conversion to byte offset ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 14

15 if statement if ( condition ) { statements } # MIPS code for the condition expression #(if condition satisfied set \$t0=1) beq \$t0, \$zero, if_end_label # MIPS code for the statements if_end_label: ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 15

16 Compiling If Statements C code: if (i==j) f = g+h; else f = g-h; f, g, in \$s0, \$s1, Compiled MIPS code: bne \$s3, \$s4, Else add \$s0, \$s1, \$s2 j Exit Else: sub \$s0, \$s1, \$s2 Exit: Assembler calculates addresses ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 16

17 if else statement if ( condition ) { if-statements } else { else-statements } # MIPS code for the condition expression #(if condition satisfied set \$t0=1) beq \$t0, \$zero, else_label # MIPS code for the if-statements j if_end_label else_label: # MIPS code for the else-statements if_end_label: ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 17

18 Summary We have now covered the major operation instructions Most programs require lots of arithmetic and logic operations Can use registers or immediate operands Be sure to keep instruction formats in mind Control operations Modify the flow of the program What s next? Control operations programs require decisions Implementing control Implementing methods/subroutines ECE232: Logic Operations + Intro to Conditionals 18

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