Introduction to C. Why C? Difference between Python and C C compiler stages Basic syntax in C

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Introduction to C. Why C? Difference between Python and C C compiler stages Basic syntax in C"

Transcription

1 Final Review CS304

2 Introduction to C Why C? Difference between Python and C C compiler stages Basic syntax in C

3 Pointers What is a pointer? declaration, &, dereference... Pointer & dynamic memory allocation Virtual memory Pointer & arrays Relationship between pointer and array name sizeof, strlen... Pointer arithmetic *(array_ptr++) and (*array_ptr)++ [] and * pointers to arrays and array of pointers

4 Pointers Pointer & functions passing by value & passing by reference function pointers Pointer & structures Struct declaration and definition #define and typedef access struct with pointers offsetof

5 Introduction to Computer Organization Three layers in computer system software/os/hardware Hardware organization Von Neumann Architecture virtual memory and cache hierarchy What will happen if we type a linux command in command line?

6 Information Representation Number systems Decimal, Binary, Hexadecimal, Octal, base-10 Two important limitations Overflow, accuracy Information storage and byte order interpretation is important word size byte big endian and little endian

7 Integers Why low level representation? B2U, B2T, B2O, B2S range & min, max Signed vs. unsigned Integer operations sign extend, truncation, addition, negation, multiplication, division overflow, multiplication by constant, division by power of 2, rounding shift and bit operations

8 Floating Point Numbers Binary floating point IEEE-754 format single precision: 1[31]-sign, 8[30-23]-exponent, 23[22-0]-fraction, 127-bias Normalized & special values 0, subnormal (de-normalized), +/-infinity, NaN bias, hidden bit Range and precision Rounding, casting, special operations

9 Bit Operations Masks Shift operation valid range, logic shift and arithmetic shift Bit operation and logic operation Boolean algebra basic property of & ~ ^ two typical use cases of ^ (swap and array check)

10 Assembly Programming: Y86 Introduction to assembly programming Why assembly code? Operations and visible states in assembly programming Concept of ISA and CPU cycle Introduction to Y86 Visible states in Y86, registers, memory, cc, PC, program status

11 Assembly Programming: Y86 Y86 instructions assembler directives status conditions and exceptions instructions (operations, branches, and moves) stack operations subroutine call/return Y86 encoding Y86 instruction execution

12 Assembly Programming: IA32 Introduction to IA32 RISC and CISC (Y86 R or C, IA32 R or C?) IA32 visible states IA32 operations Data movement addressing modes: absolute, indirect, base+displacement, and indexed Stack and function operations basic stack push and pop; function call and return how to maintain the stack frame for procedure calls register usage conventions recursive procedures

13 Assembly Programming: IA32 IA32 operations (continue) Arithmetic and logic operations LEA! Compare and jump control flow and data flow cc and how to set cc: cmp and test how to use cc: set, jmp and cmov control structures: select, loop, switch (jump table)

14 Assembly Programming: IA32 Array and structures allocation and access relationship/conversion between c and IA32 Data alignment issue

15 Exam format True or false (10 pts) Ex. IA32 belongs to CISC Multiple choice (10 pts) basic concepts Short answer (20 pts) instruction encoding and instruction execution code reading/writing Code evaluation and open questions (60 pts) code reading, explain and fill in blanks conversion between C and Y86 (or IA32) Extra bonus (20 pts) code optimizations with computer organization knowledge some open questions about cache

16 Suggestions Notes!!!! Labs & HWs!!!! slides!!! Practice problems on our website!!! textbook! Don t forget to prepare for a letter-size double-side cheat sheet (must contain: Y86 encoding) Please take our course evaluation whenever you have time before December 7 th.

17 Thanks for taking this class, and good luck with all your finals!

Topics Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely. Computer Organization CS Data Representation

Topics Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely. Computer Organization CS Data Representation Computer Organization CS 231-01 Data Representation Dr. William H. Robinson November 12, 2004 Topics Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely. Lord Acton British historian, late 19 th

More information

CS 61C: Great Ideas in Computer Architecture. (Brief) Review Lecture

CS 61C: Great Ideas in Computer Architecture. (Brief) Review Lecture CS 61C: Great Ideas in Computer Architecture (Brief) Review Lecture Instructor: Justin Hsia 7/16/2013 Summer 2013 Lecture #13 1 Topic List So Far (1/2) Number Representation Signed/unsigned, Floating Point

More information

Floating Point Numbers

Floating Point Numbers Floating Point Numbers Summer 8 Fractional numbers Fractional numbers fixed point Floating point numbers the IEEE 7 floating point standard Floating point operations Rounding modes CMPE Summer 8 Slides

More information

Data Storage. August 9, Indiana University. Geoffrey Brown, Bryce Himebaugh 2015 August 9, / 19

Data Storage. August 9, Indiana University. Geoffrey Brown, Bryce Himebaugh 2015 August 9, / 19 Data Storage Geoffrey Brown Bryce Himebaugh Indiana University August 9, 2016 Geoffrey Brown, Bryce Himebaugh 2015 August 9, 2016 1 / 19 Outline Bits, Bytes, Words Word Size Byte Addressable Memory Byte

More information

Lecture 4: Instruction Set Architecture

Lecture 4: Instruction Set Architecture Lecture 4: Instruction Set Architecture ISA types, register usage, memory addressing, endian and alignment, quantitative evaluation Reading: Textbook (5 th edition) Appendix A Appendix B (4 th edition)

More information

17. Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Functions

17. Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Functions 17. Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Functions Chapter 12 Spring 2016 CS430 - Computer Architecture 1 Introduction Section 12.1, 12.2, and 12.3 pp. 406-418 Computer Designer: Machine instruction set

More information

CS61c Midterm Review (fa06) Number representation and Floating points From your friendly reader

CS61c Midterm Review (fa06) Number representation and Floating points From your friendly reader CS61c Midterm Review (fa06) Number representation and Floating points From your friendly reader Number representation (See: Lecture 2, Lab 1, HW#1) KNOW: Kibi (2 10 ), Mebi(2 20 ), Gibi(2 30 ), Tebi(2

More information

CS367 Test 1 Review Guide

CS367 Test 1 Review Guide CS367 Test 1 Review Guide This guide tries to revisit what topics we've covered, and also to briefly suggest/hint at types of questions that might show up on the test. Anything on slides, assigned reading,

More information

Final Exam. 11 May 2018, 120 minutes, 26 questions, 100 points

Final Exam. 11 May 2018, 120 minutes, 26 questions, 100 points Name: CS520 Final Exam 11 May 2018, 120 minutes, 26 questions, 100 points The exam is closed book and notes. Please keep all electronic devices turned off and out of reach. Note that a question may require

More information

Midterm 1 topics (in one slide) Bits and bitwise operations. Outline. Unsigned and signed integers. Floating point numbers. Number representation

Midterm 1 topics (in one slide) Bits and bitwise operations. Outline. Unsigned and signed integers. Floating point numbers. Number representation Midterm 1 topics (in one slide) CSci 2021: Review Lecture 1 Stephen McCamant University of Minnesota, Computer Science & Engineering Number representation Bits and bitwise operators Unsigned and signed

More information

CS , Fall 2004 Exam 1

CS , Fall 2004 Exam 1 Andrew login ID: Full Name: CS 15-213, Fall 2004 Exam 1 Tuesday October 12, 2004 Instructions: Make sure that your exam is not missing any sheets, then write your full name and Andrew login ID on the front.

More information

Computer Organization CS 206 T Lec# 2: Instruction Sets

Computer Organization CS 206 T Lec# 2: Instruction Sets Computer Organization CS 206 T Lec# 2: Instruction Sets Topics What is an instruction set Elements of instruction Instruction Format Instruction types Types of operations Types of operand Addressing mode

More information

CS , Spring 2004 Exam 1

CS , Spring 2004 Exam 1 Andrew login ID: Full Name: CS 15-213, Spring 2004 Exam 1 February 26, 2004 Instructions: Make sure that your exam is not missing any sheets (there should be 15), then write your full name and Andrew login

More information

Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Functions Addressing Modes

Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Functions Addressing Modes Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Functions Addressing Modes Chapters 10 and 11, William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 7 th Edition What is an Instruction Set? The complete collection

More information

The CPU and Memory. How does a computer work? How does a computer interact with data? How are instructions performed? Recall schematic diagram:

The CPU and Memory. How does a computer work? How does a computer interact with data? How are instructions performed? Recall schematic diagram: The CPU and Memory How does a computer work? How does a computer interact with data? How are instructions performed? Recall schematic diagram: 1 Registers A register is a permanent storage location within

More information

COMP2611: Computer Organization. Data Representation

COMP2611: Computer Organization. Data Representation COMP2611: Computer Organization Comp2611 Fall 2015 2 1. Binary numbers and 2 s Complement Numbers 3 Bits: are the basis for binary number representation in digital computers What you will learn here: How

More information

SOME ASSEMBLY REQUIRED

SOME ASSEMBLY REQUIRED SOME ASSEMBLY REQUIRED Assembly Language Programming with the AVR Microcontroller TIMOTHY S. MARGUSH CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Croup an Informa business

More information

M1 Computers and Data

M1 Computers and Data M1 Computers and Data Module Outline Architecture vs. Organization. Computer system and its submodules. Concept of frequency. Processor performance equation. Representation of information characters, signed

More information

Assembly Language Design

Assembly Language Design Assembly Language Design Instruction Set 1. Data Movement 2. Arithmetic 3. Logical 4. Conversion 5. Program Control 6. System Control Syntax & System Characteristics 1. Assembly Directives 2. Constants

More information

Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Functions

Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Functions Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Functions Chapter 10 Lesson 15 Slide 1/22 Machine instruction set Computer designer: The machine instruction set provides the functional requirements for the CPU.

More information

Computer Organisation CS303

Computer Organisation CS303 Computer Organisation CS303 Module Period Assignments 1 Day 1 to Day 6 1. Write a program to evaluate the arithmetic statement: X=(A-B + C * (D * E-F))/G + H*K a. Using a general register computer with

More information

Floating Point Numbers

Floating Point Numbers Floating Point Numbers Computer Systems Organization (Spring 2016) CSCI-UA 201, Section 2 Instructor: Joanna Klukowska Slides adapted from Randal E. Bryant and David R. O Hallaron (CMU) Mohamed Zahran

More information

Floating Point Numbers

Floating Point Numbers Floating Point Numbers Computer Systems Organization (Spring 2016) CSCI-UA 201, Section 2 Fractions in Binary Instructor: Joanna Klukowska Slides adapted from Randal E. Bryant and David R. O Hallaron (CMU)

More information

Bits and Bytes. Why bits? Representing information as bits Binary/Hexadecimal Byte representations» numbers» characters and strings» Instructions

Bits and Bytes. Why bits? Representing information as bits Binary/Hexadecimal Byte representations» numbers» characters and strings» Instructions Bits and Bytes Topics Why bits? Representing information as bits Binary/Hexadecimal Byte representations» numbers» characters and strings» Instructions Bit-level manipulations Boolean algebra Expressing

More information

COMPUTER ORGANIZATION & ARCHITECTURE

COMPUTER ORGANIZATION & ARCHITECTURE COMPUTER ORGANIZATION & ARCHITECTURE Instructions Sets Architecture Lesson 5a 1 What are Instruction Sets The complete collection of instructions that are understood by a CPU Can be considered as a functional

More information

ECE2049: Embedded Computing in Engineering Design C Term Spring Lecture #3: Of Integers and Endians (pt. 2)

ECE2049: Embedded Computing in Engineering Design C Term Spring Lecture #3: Of Integers and Endians (pt. 2) ECE2049: Embedded Computing in Engineering Design C Term Spring 2018 Lecture #3: Of Integers and Endians (pt. 2) Reading for Today: Davies Ch 2, MSP430 User's Guide Ch 6.1, 6.3 Reading for Next Class:

More information

Page 1. Where Have We Been? Chapter 2 Representing and Manipulating Information. Why Don t Computers Use Base 10?

Page 1. Where Have We Been? Chapter 2 Representing and Manipulating Information. Why Don t Computers Use Base 10? Where Have We Been? Class Introduction Great Realities of Computing Int s are not Integers, Float s are not Reals You must know assembly Memory Matters Performance! Asymptotic Complexity It s more than

More information

Computer Systems A Programmer s Perspective 1 (Beta Draft)

Computer Systems A Programmer s Perspective 1 (Beta Draft) Computer Systems A Programmer s Perspective 1 (Beta Draft) Randal E. Bryant David R. O Hallaron August 1, 2001 1 Copyright c 2001, R. E. Bryant, D. R. O Hallaron. All rights reserved. 2 Contents Preface

More information

231 Spring Final Exam Name:

231 Spring Final Exam Name: 231 Spring 2010 -- Final Exam Name: No calculators. Matching. Indicate the letter of the best description. (1 pt. each) 1. address 2. object code 3. condition code 4. byte 5. ASCII 6. local variable 7..global

More information

CSE 351 Midterm - Winter 2015 Solutions

CSE 351 Midterm - Winter 2015 Solutions CSE 351 Midterm - Winter 2015 Solutions February 09, 2015 Please read through the entire examination first! We designed this exam so that it can be completed in 50 minutes and, hopefully, this estimate

More information

ICS Instructor: Aleksandar Kuzmanovic TA: Ionut Trestian Recitation 2

ICS Instructor: Aleksandar Kuzmanovic TA: Ionut Trestian Recitation 2 ICS 2008 Instructor: Aleksandar Kuzmanovic TA: Ionut Trestian Recitation 2 Data Representations Sizes of C Objects (in Bytes) C Data Type Compaq Alpha Typical 32-bit Intel IA32 int 4 4 4 long int 8 4 4

More information

Time: 8:30-10:00 pm (Arrive at 8:15 pm) Location What to bring:

Time: 8:30-10:00 pm (Arrive at 8:15 pm) Location What to bring: ECE 120 Midterm 1 HKN Review Session Time: 8:30-10:00 pm (Arrive at 8:15 pm) Location: Your Room on Compass What to bring: icard, pens/pencils, Cheat sheet (Handwritten) Overview of Review Binary IEEE

More information

CSE 351 Midterm - Winter 2015

CSE 351 Midterm - Winter 2015 CSE 351 Midterm - Winter 2015 February 09, 2015 Please read through the entire examination first! We designed this exam so that it can be completed in 50 minutes and, hopefully, this estimate will prove

More information

Floating-Point Data Representation and Manipulation 198:231 Introduction to Computer Organization Lecture 3

Floating-Point Data Representation and Manipulation 198:231 Introduction to Computer Organization Lecture 3 Floating-Point Data Representation and Manipulation 198:231 Introduction to Computer Organization Instructor: Nicole Hynes nicole.hynes@rutgers.edu 1 Fixed Point Numbers Fixed point number: integer part

More information

Malloc Lab & Midterm Solutions. Recitation 11: Tuesday: 11/08/2016

Malloc Lab & Midterm Solutions. Recitation 11: Tuesday: 11/08/2016 Malloc Lab & Midterm Solutions Recitation 11: Tuesday: 11/08/2016 Malloc 2 Important Notes about Malloc Lab Malloc lab has been updated from previous years Supports a full 64 bit address space rather than

More information

COMP3221: Microprocessors and. and Embedded Systems. Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) What makes an ISA? #1: Memory Models. What makes an ISA?

COMP3221: Microprocessors and. and Embedded Systems. Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) What makes an ISA? #1: Memory Models. What makes an ISA? COMP3221: Microprocessors and Embedded Systems Lecture 2: Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~cs3221 Lecturer: Hui Wu Session 2, 2005 Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) ISA is

More information

Why Don t Computers Use Base 10? Lecture 2 Bits and Bytes. Binary Representations. Byte-Oriented Memory Organization. Base 10 Number Representation

Why Don t Computers Use Base 10? Lecture 2 Bits and Bytes. Binary Representations. Byte-Oriented Memory Organization. Base 10 Number Representation Lecture 2 Bits and Bytes Topics! Why bits?! Representing information as bits " Binary/Hexadecimal " Byte representations» numbers» characters and strings» Instructions! Bit-level manipulations " Boolean

More information

Chapter 4. Operations on Data

Chapter 4. Operations on Data Chapter 4 Operations on Data 1 OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, the reader should be able to: List the three categories of operations performed on data. Perform unary and binary logic operations

More information

Computer (Literacy) Skills. Number representations and memory. Lubomír Bulej KDSS MFF UK

Computer (Literacy) Skills. Number representations and memory. Lubomír Bulej KDSS MFF UK Computer (Literacy Skills Number representations and memory Lubomír Bulej KDSS MFF UK Number representations? What for? Recall: computer works with binary numbers Groups of zeroes and ones 8 bits (byte,

More information

CS107 Handout 13 Spring 2008 April 18, 2008 Computer Architecture: Take II

CS107 Handout 13 Spring 2008 April 18, 2008 Computer Architecture: Take II CS107 Handout 13 Spring 2008 April 18, 2008 Computer Architecture: Take II Example: Simple variables Handout written by Julie Zelenski and Nick Parlante A variable is a location in memory. When a variable

More information

15-213/18-243, Spring 2011 Exam 1

15-213/18-243, Spring 2011 Exam 1 Andrew login ID: Full Name: Section: 15-213/18-243, Spring 2011 Exam 1 Thursday, March 3, 2011 (v1) Instructions: Make sure that your exam is not missing any sheets, then write your Andrew login ID, full

More information

Written Homework 3. Floating-Point Example (1/2)

Written Homework 3. Floating-Point Example (1/2) Written Homework 3 Assigned on Tuesday, Feb 19 Due Time: 11:59pm, Feb 26 on Tuesday Problems: 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.41, 3.43 Note: You have 1 week to work on homework 3. 3 Floating-Point Example (1/2) Q:

More information

Team 1. Common Questions to all Teams. Team 2. Team 3. CO200-Computer Organization and Architecture - Assignment One

Team 1. Common Questions to all Teams. Team 2. Team 3. CO200-Computer Organization and Architecture - Assignment One CO200-Computer Organization and Architecture - Assignment One Note: A team may contain not more than 2 members. Format the assignment solutions in a L A TEX document. E-mail the assignment solutions PDF

More information

Computer Architecture and System Software Lecture 02: Overview of Computer Systems & Start of Chapter 2

Computer Architecture and System Software Lecture 02: Overview of Computer Systems & Start of Chapter 2 Computer Architecture and System Software Lecture 02: Overview of Computer Systems & Start of Chapter 2 Instructor: Rob Bergen Applied Computer Science University of Winnipeg Announcements Website is up

More information

Real instruction set architectures. Part 2: a representative sample

Real instruction set architectures. Part 2: a representative sample Real instruction set architectures Part 2: a representative sample Some historical architectures VAX: Digital s line of midsize computers, dominant in academia in the 70s and 80s Characteristics: Variable-length

More information

CPE300: Digital System Architecture and Design

CPE300: Digital System Architecture and Design CPE300: Digital System Architecture and Design Fall 2011 MW 17:30-18:45 CBC C316 Arithmetic Unit 10032011 http://www.egr.unlv.edu/~b1morris/cpe300/ 2 Outline Recap Chapter 3 Number Systems Fixed Point

More information

55:132/22C:160, HPCA Spring 2011

55:132/22C:160, HPCA Spring 2011 55:132/22C:160, HPCA Spring 2011 Second Lecture Slide Set Instruction Set Architecture Instruction Set Architecture ISA, the boundary between software and hardware Specifies the logical machine that is

More information

Systems Programming and Computer Architecture ( )

Systems Programming and Computer Architecture ( ) (252-0061-00) Session 9 Floating Point Systems Group Department of Computer Science ETH Zürich 1 Floating Point Recap for the Assignment 2 Floating Point Representation Numerical Form Scientific Notation

More information

Arithmetic and Bitwise Operations on Binary Data

Arithmetic and Bitwise Operations on Binary Data Arithmetic and Bitwise Operations on Binary Data CSCI 2400: Computer Architecture ECE 3217: Computer Architecture and Organization Instructor: David Ferry Slides adapted from Bryant & O Hallaron s slides

More information

Name: CMSC 313 Fall 2001 Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming Exam 1. Question Points I. /34 II. /30 III.

Name: CMSC 313 Fall 2001 Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming Exam 1. Question Points I. /34 II. /30 III. CMSC 313 Fall 2001 Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming Exam 1 Name: Question Points I. /34 II. /30 III. /36 TOTAL: /100 Instructions: 1. This is a closed-book, closed-notes exam. 2. You

More information

SIGNED AND UNSIGNED SYSTEMS

SIGNED AND UNSIGNED SYSTEMS EE 357 Unit 1 Fixed Point Systems and Arithmetic Learning Objectives Understand the size and systems used by the underlying HW when a variable is declared in a SW program Understand and be able to find

More information

CSIS1120A. 10. Instruction Set & Addressing Mode. CSIS1120A 10. Instruction Set & Addressing Mode 1

CSIS1120A. 10. Instruction Set & Addressing Mode. CSIS1120A 10. Instruction Set & Addressing Mode 1 CSIS1120A 10. Instruction Set & Addressing Mode CSIS1120A 10. Instruction Set & Addressing Mode 1 Elements of a Machine Instruction Operation Code specifies the operation to be performed, e.g. ADD, SUB

More information

Instruction Sets Ch 9-10

Instruction Sets Ch 9-10 Instruction Sets Ch 9-10 Characteristics Operands Operations Addressing Instruction Formats 1 Instruction Set (käskykanta) Collection of instructions that CPU understands Only interface to CPU from outside

More information

Instruction Sets Ch 9-10

Instruction Sets Ch 9-10 Instruction Sets Ch 9-10 Characteristics Operands Operations Addressing Instruction Formats 1 Instruction Set (käskykanta) Collection of instructions that CPU understands Only interface to CPU from outside

More information

Operations On Data CHAPTER 4. (Solutions to Odd-Numbered Problems) Review Questions

Operations On Data CHAPTER 4. (Solutions to Odd-Numbered Problems) Review Questions CHAPTER 4 Operations On Data (Solutions to Odd-Numbered Problems) Review Questions 1. Arithmetic operations interpret bit patterns as numbers. Logical operations interpret each bit as a logical values

More information

Why Don t Computers Use Base 10? Lecture 2 Bits and Bytes. Binary Representations. Byte-Oriented Memory Organization. Base 10 Number Representation

Why Don t Computers Use Base 10? Lecture 2 Bits and Bytes. Binary Representations. Byte-Oriented Memory Organization. Base 10 Number Representation Lecture 2 Bits and Bytes Topics Why bits? Representing information as bits Binary/Hexadecimal Byte representations» numbers» characters and strings» Instructions Bit-level manipulations Boolean algebra

More information

Question Points Score Total: 100

Question Points Score Total: 100 Computer Science 2021 Spring 2016 Midterm Exam 1 February 29th, 2016 Time Limit: 50 minutes, 3:35pm-4:25pm This exam contains 7 pages (including this cover page) and 5 questions. Once we tell you to start,

More information

Course Schedule. CS 221 Computer Architecture. Week 3: Plan. I. Hexadecimals and Character Representations. Hexadecimal Representation

Course Schedule. CS 221 Computer Architecture. Week 3: Plan. I. Hexadecimals and Character Representations. Hexadecimal Representation Course Schedule CS 221 Computer Architecture Week 3: Information Representation (2) Fall 2001 W1 Sep 11- Sep 14 Introduction W2 Sep 18- Sep 21 Information Representation (1) (Chapter 3) W3 Sep 25- Sep

More information

CSE 351 Midterm - Winter 2017

CSE 351 Midterm - Winter 2017 CSE 351 Midterm - Winter 2017 February 08, 2017 Please read through the entire examination first, and make sure you write your name and NetID on all pages! We designed this exam so that it can be completed

More information

Understand the factors involved in instruction set

Understand the factors involved in instruction set A Closer Look at Instruction Set Architectures Objectives Understand the factors involved in instruction set architecture design. Look at different instruction formats, operand types, and memory access

More information

CSE 12 Week Eight, Lecture One

CSE 12 Week Eight, Lecture One CSE 12 Week Eight, Lecture One Heap: (The data structure, not the memory area) - A binary tree with properties: - 1. Parent s are greater than s. o the heap order - 2. Nodes are inserted so that tree is

More information

Instruction Set Architecture

Instruction Set Architecture C Fortran Ada etc. Basic Java Instruction Set Architecture Compiler Assembly Language Compiler Byte Code Nizamettin AYDIN naydin@yildiz.edu.tr http://www.yildiz.edu.tr/~naydin http://akademik.bahcesehir.edu.tr/~naydin

More information

Numeric Encodings Prof. James L. Frankel Harvard University

Numeric Encodings Prof. James L. Frankel Harvard University Numeric Encodings Prof. James L. Frankel Harvard University Version of 10:19 PM 12-Sep-2017 Copyright 2017, 2016 James L. Frankel. All rights reserved. Representation of Positive & Negative Integral and

More information

COMP2121: Microprocessors and Interfacing. Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)

COMP2121: Microprocessors and Interfacing. Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) COMP2121: Microprocessors and Interfacing Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~cs2121 Lecturer: Hui Wu Session 2, 2017 1 Contents Memory models Registers Data types Instructions

More information

2. Define Instruction Set Architecture. What are its two main characteristics? Be precise!

2. Define Instruction Set Architecture. What are its two main characteristics? Be precise! Chapter 1: Computer Abstractions and Technology 1. Assume two processors, a CISC processor and a RISC processor. In order to run a particular program, the CISC processor must execute 10 million instructions

More information

Computer Architecture and IC Design Lab. Chapter 3 Part 2 Arithmetic for Computers Floating Point

Computer Architecture and IC Design Lab. Chapter 3 Part 2 Arithmetic for Computers Floating Point Chapter 3 Part 2 Arithmetic for Computers Floating Point Floating Point Representation for non integral numbers Including very small and very large numbers 4,600,000,000 or 4.6 x 10 9 0.0000000000000000000000000166

More information

CS Programming In C

CS Programming In C CS 24000 - Programming In C Week Two: Basic C Program Organization and Data Types Zhiyuan Li Department of Computer Science Purdue University, USA 2 int main() { } return 0; The Simplest C Program C programs

More information

MACHINE LEVEL REPRESENTATION OF DATA

MACHINE LEVEL REPRESENTATION OF DATA MACHINE LEVEL REPRESENTATION OF DATA CHAPTER 2 1 Objectives Understand how integers and fractional numbers are represented in binary Explore the relationship between decimal number system and number systems

More information

Fixed-Point Math and Other Optimizations

Fixed-Point Math and Other Optimizations Fixed-Point Math and Other Optimizations Embedded Systems 8-1 Fixed Point Math Why and How Floating point is too slow and integers truncate the data Floating point subroutines: slower than native, overhead

More information

Foundations of Computer Systems

Foundations of Computer Systems 18-600 Foundations of Computer Systems Lecture 4: Floating Point Required Reading Assignment: Chapter 2 of CS:APP (3 rd edition) by Randy Bryant & Dave O Hallaron Assignments for This Week: Lab 1 18-600

More information

C Programming. Course Outline. C Programming. Code: MBD101. Duration: 10 Hours. Prerequisites:

C Programming. Course Outline. C Programming. Code: MBD101. Duration: 10 Hours. Prerequisites: C Programming Code: MBD101 Duration: 10 Hours Prerequisites: You are a computer science Professional/ graduate student You can execute Linux/UNIX commands You know how to use a text-editing tool You should

More information

Chapter 2 Float Point Arithmetic. Real Numbers in Decimal Notation. Real Numbers in Decimal Notation

Chapter 2 Float Point Arithmetic. Real Numbers in Decimal Notation. Real Numbers in Decimal Notation Chapter 2 Float Point Arithmetic Topics IEEE Floating Point Standard Fractional Binary Numbers Rounding Floating Point Operations Mathematical properties Real Numbers in Decimal Notation Representation

More information

Chapter 03: Computer Arithmetic. Lesson 09: Arithmetic using floating point numbers

Chapter 03: Computer Arithmetic. Lesson 09: Arithmetic using floating point numbers Chapter 03: Computer Arithmetic Lesson 09: Arithmetic using floating point numbers Objective To understand arithmetic operations in case of floating point numbers 2 Multiplication of Floating Point Numbers

More information

Hardware: Logical View

Hardware: Logical View Hardware: Logical View CPU Memory Bus Disks Net USB Etc. 1 Hardware: Physical View USB I/O controller Storage connections CPU Memory 2 Hardware: 351 View (version 0) instructions? Memory CPU data CPU executes

More information

CSCI 402: Computer Architectures. Arithmetic for Computers (4) Fengguang Song Department of Computer & Information Science IUPUI.

CSCI 402: Computer Architectures. Arithmetic for Computers (4) Fengguang Song Department of Computer & Information Science IUPUI. CSCI 402: Computer Architectures Arithmetic for Computers (4) Fengguang Song Department of Computer & Information Science IUPUI Homework 4 Assigned on Feb 22, Thursday Due Time: 11:59pm, March 5 on Monday

More information

Instruction Set. Instruction Sets Ch Instruction Representation. Machine Instruction. Instruction Set Design (5) Operation types

Instruction Set. Instruction Sets Ch Instruction Representation. Machine Instruction. Instruction Set Design (5) Operation types Instruction Sets Ch 10-11 Characteristics Operands Operations Addressing Instruction Formats Instruction Set Collection of instructions that CPU understands Only interface to CPU from outside CPU executes

More information

Bits, Bytes, and Integers Part 2

Bits, Bytes, and Integers Part 2 Bits, Bytes, and Integers Part 2 15-213: Introduction to Computer Systems 3 rd Lecture, Jan. 23, 2018 Instructors: Franz Franchetti, Seth Copen Goldstein, Brian Railing 1 First Assignment: Data Lab Due:

More information

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Review Topics. parameter passing, memory model)

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Review Topics. parameter passing, memory model) Final Exam Review Original slides from Gregory Byrd, North Carolina State University Modified slides by C. Wilcox, S. Rajopadhye Colorado State University Review Topics! Number Representation & Arithmetic!

More information

Lecture 5-6: Bits, Bytes, and Integers

Lecture 5-6: Bits, Bytes, and Integers CSCI-UA.0201-003 Computer Systems Organization Lecture 5-6: Bits, Bytes, and Integers Mohamed Zahran (aka Z) mzahran@cs.nyu.edu http://www.mzahran.com Slides adapted from: Jinyang Li Bryant and O Hallaron

More information

System Programming CISC 360. Floating Point September 16, 2008

System Programming CISC 360. Floating Point September 16, 2008 System Programming CISC 360 Floating Point September 16, 2008 Topics IEEE Floating Point Standard Rounding Floating Point Operations Mathematical properties Powerpoint Lecture Notes for Computer Systems:

More information

CS 265. Computer Architecture. Wei Lu, Ph.D., P.Eng.

CS 265. Computer Architecture. Wei Lu, Ph.D., P.Eng. CS 265 Computer Architecture Wei Lu, Ph.D., P.Eng. CS 265 Midterm #1 Monday, Oct 18, 12:00pm-1:45pm, SCI 163 Questions on essential terms and concepts of Computer Architecture Mathematical questions on

More information

Bits and Bytes January 13, 2005

Bits and Bytes January 13, 2005 15-213 The Class That Gives CMU Its Zip! Topics Bits and Bytes January 13, 25 Why bits? Representing information as bits Binary / Hexadecimal Byte representations» Numbers» Characters and strings» Instructions

More information

Computers Programming Course 5. Iulian Năstac

Computers Programming Course 5. Iulian Năstac Computers Programming Course 5 Iulian Năstac Recap from previous course Classification of the programming languages High level (Ada, Pascal, Fortran, etc.) programming languages with strong abstraction

More information

Floating Point Puzzles. Lecture 3B Floating Point. IEEE Floating Point. Fractional Binary Numbers. Topics. IEEE Standard 754

Floating Point Puzzles. Lecture 3B Floating Point. IEEE Floating Point. Fractional Binary Numbers. Topics. IEEE Standard 754 Floating Point Puzzles Topics Lecture 3B Floating Point IEEE Floating Point Standard Rounding Floating Point Operations Mathematical properties For each of the following C expressions, either: Argue that

More information

15-213/18-243, Fall 2010 Exam 1 - Version A

15-213/18-243, Fall 2010 Exam 1 - Version A Andrew login ID: Full Name: Section: 15-213/18-243, Fall 2010 Exam 1 - Version A Tuesday, September 28, 2010 Instructions: Make sure that your exam is not missing any sheets, then write your Andrew login

More information

CS , Fall 2001 Exam 1

CS , Fall 2001 Exam 1 Andrew login ID: Full Name: CS 15-213, Fall 2001 Exam 1 October 9, 2001 Instructions: Make sure that your exam is not missing any sheets, then write your full name and Andrew login ID on the front. Write

More information

Bryant and O Hallaron, Computer Systems: A Programmer s Perspective, Third Edition. Carnegie Mellon

Bryant and O Hallaron, Computer Systems: A Programmer s Perspective, Third Edition. Carnegie Mellon Carnegie Mellon Floating Point 15-213/18-213/14-513/15-513: Introduction to Computer Systems 4 th Lecture, Sept. 6, 2018 Today: Floating Point Background: Fractional binary numbers IEEE floating point

More information

Rui Wang, Assistant professor Dept. of Information and Communication Tongji University.

Rui Wang, Assistant professor Dept. of Information and Communication Tongji University. Instructions: ti Language of the Computer Rui Wang, Assistant professor Dept. of Information and Communication Tongji University it Email: ruiwang@tongji.edu.cn Computer Hierarchy Levels Language understood

More information

Floating Point. CSE 238/2038/2138: Systems Programming. Instructor: Fatma CORUT ERGİN. Slides adapted from Bryant & O Hallaron s slides

Floating Point. CSE 238/2038/2138: Systems Programming. Instructor: Fatma CORUT ERGİN. Slides adapted from Bryant & O Hallaron s slides Floating Point CSE 238/2038/2138: Systems Programming Instructor: Fatma CORUT ERGİN Slides adapted from Bryant & O Hallaron s slides Today: Floating Point Background: Fractional binary numbers IEEE floating

More information

Page 1. Structure of von Nuemann machine. Instruction Set - the type of Instructions

Page 1. Structure of von Nuemann machine. Instruction Set - the type of Instructions Structure of von Nuemann machine Arithmetic and Logic Unit Input Output Equipment Main Memory Program Control Unit 1 1 Instruction Set - the type of Instructions Arithmetic + Logical (ADD, SUB, MULT, DIV,

More information

Number Systems. Decimal numbers. Binary numbers. Chapter 1 <1> 8's column. 1000's column. 2's column. 4's column

Number Systems. Decimal numbers. Binary numbers. Chapter 1 <1> 8's column. 1000's column. 2's column. 4's column 1's column 10's column 100's column 1000's column 1's column 2's column 4's column 8's column Number Systems Decimal numbers 5374 10 = Binary numbers 1101 2 = Chapter 1 1's column 10's column 100's

More information

ECE331: Hardware Organization and Design

ECE331: Hardware Organization and Design ECE331: Hardware Organization and Design Lecture 15: Midterm 1 Review Adapted from Computer Organization and Design, Patterson & Hennessy, UCB Basics Midterm to cover Book Sections (inclusive) 1.1 1.5

More information

CS , Fall 2002 Exam 1

CS , Fall 2002 Exam 1 Andrew login ID: Full Name: CS 15-213, Fall 2002 Exam 1 October 8, 2002 Instructions: Make sure that your exam is not missing any sheets, then write your full name and Andrew login ID on the front. Write

More information

CS 265. Computer Architecture. Wei Lu, Ph.D., P.Eng.

CS 265. Computer Architecture. Wei Lu, Ph.D., P.Eng. CS 265 Computer Architecture Wei Lu, Ph.D., P.Eng. 1 Part 1: Data Representation Our goal: revisit and re-establish fundamental of mathematics for the computer architecture course Overview: what are bits

More information

Midterm Exam Answers Instructor: Randy Shepherd CSCI-UA.0201 Spring 2017

Midterm Exam Answers Instructor: Randy Shepherd CSCI-UA.0201 Spring 2017 Section 1: Multiple choice (select any that apply) - 20 points 01. Representing 10 using the 4 byte unsigned integer encoding and using 4 byte two s complements encoding yields the same bit pattern. (a)

More information

Floating Point Arithmetic

Floating Point Arithmetic Floating Point Arithmetic CS 365 Floating-Point What can be represented in N bits? Unsigned 0 to 2 N 2s Complement -2 N-1 to 2 N-1-1 But, what about? very large numbers? 9,349,398,989,787,762,244,859,087,678

More information

Floating Point (with contributions from Dr. Bin Ren, William & Mary Computer Science)

Floating Point (with contributions from Dr. Bin Ren, William & Mary Computer Science) Floating Point (with contributions from Dr. Bin Ren, William & Mary Computer Science) Floating Point Background: Fractional binary numbers IEEE floating point standard: Definition Example and properties

More information

Data Representation and Storage. Some definitions (in C)

Data Representation and Storage. Some definitions (in C) Data Representation and Storage Learning Objectives Define the following terms (with respect to C): Object Declaration Definition Alias Fundamental type Derived type Use pointer arithmetic correctly Explain

More information

Reserved Words and Identifiers

Reserved Words and Identifiers 1 Programming in C Reserved Words and Identifiers Reserved word Word that has a specific meaning in C Ex: int, return Identifier Word used to name and refer to a data element or object manipulated by the

More information

Course overview. Computer Organization and Assembly Languages Yung-Yu Chuang 2006/09/18. with slides by Kip Irvine

Course overview. Computer Organization and Assembly Languages Yung-Yu Chuang 2006/09/18. with slides by Kip Irvine Course overview Computer Organization and Assembly Languages Yung-Yu Chuang 2006/09/18 with slides by Kip Irvine Logistics Meeting time: 9:10am-12:10pm, Monday Classroom: CSIE Room 102 Instructor: Yung-Yu

More information