# More Scheme CS 331. Quiz. 4. What is the length of the list (()()()())? Which element does (car (cdr (x y z))) extract from the list?

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1 More Scheme CS 331 Quiz 1. What is (car ((2) 3 4))? (2) 2. What is (cdr ((2) (3) (4)))? ((3)(4)) 3. What is (cons 2 (2 3 4))? ( ) 4. What is the length of the list (()()()())? 4 5. Which element does (car (cdr (x y z))) extract from the list? y 6. What do some people thing LISP stands for? Losta Insane Stupid Parenthesis 1

2 Reading Input (read) returns whatever is input at the keyboard (define x (read)) 55 x 55 Display Output Use display: (display (+ 3 4)) (display x) (newline) ; output newline Can use to add to functions for debugging or use Trace functions 2

3 Trace Shows function calls Choose PLT/Textual (MzScheme, includes R5RS) as your language Add (require (lib "trace.ss")) to the top of your program Add (trace functionname) or (untrace functionname) to turn off tracing Structure of Lists List : a sequence of zero of more elements May be heterogeneous (a 20 (20 20) (lambda (x) (+ x x))) List of Lists (+ 3 4) A list An expression Allows expression to be built and then evaluated 3

4 Tree structure of lists (a b c) (cons a (cons b ) (cons c ()) a b c ( ) ) List structure (a (b) (c (d))) a b ( ) ( ) c d ( ) 4

5 List storage Independent of allocation schemes Familiarity is helpful for assessment Cons is the constructor Allocates a single cell tail head List structure (a (b) (c (d))) ( ) a b ( ) c d ( ) 5

6 Notion of Equality Eq? Checks if the two pointers are the same Equal? Checks if the two arguments are lists with equal elements. Recursive Structurally the same Eq? equal? for symbols. Examples (equal? foo foo) (eq? foo foo) true (equal? (a b) (a b)) true (eq? (a b) (a b)) false (define x (a b c)) (define y (cons (car x) (cdr x))) (equal? x y) true (eq? x y) false 6

7 More List Functions append takes two arguments and returns the concatenation of two lists. be careful here not to confuse append with cons. (append '(a b c) '(d e f)) (a b c d e f) (append '(a b (c)) '((d) e f)) (a b (c) (d) e f) list returns a list constructed from its arguments. (list 'a) (a) (list 'a 'b 'c 'd 'e 'f) (a b c d e f) (list '(a b c)) ((a b c)) (list '(a b c) '(d e f) '(g h i)) ((a b c)(d e f)(g h i)) More List Functions length returns the length of a list. (length '(a b c d ef gh i jk)) 8 (length '(a b c d (ef gh i jk))) 5 reverse returns the same list, only in reversed order. Note, this is only shallow reverse. (reverse '(a b d g o)) (o g d b a) (reverse '(a (b d) g o)) (o g (b d) a) 7

8 Exercise Write a helper function to return the first half of a list. Here is the main function: (define (firsthalf lst) (getfirsthalf lst (quotient (length lst) 2)) ) Write a helper function to return the second half of a list. Here is the main function: (define (secondhalf lst) (getsecondhalf lst (quotient (length lst) 2)) ) Merge Method Write a method called Merge that merges two sorted lists: (define (Merge x y) ) 8

9 MergeSort Write a MergeSort method that uses your Merge method to sort a list of numbers. let & let* (let ((x1 E1) (x2 E2) (x3 E3). (x n E n )) F) - Expressions E1, E2, E n are evaluated - Evaluate F with x i s bound to E i s - Value of let is the value of F 9

10 Local Variables (let & let*) Used to factor out common expressions Introduce names in subexpressions Order of evaluation of expression is undetermined (let) Order of evaluation of expression is sequential (let*) Examples (let ((x 2) (y x)) y) 0 (let* ((x 2) (y x)) y) 2 10

11 Tail recursion A recursive function is tail-recursive if (a) it returns a value without needing recursion OR (b) simply the result of a recursive activation i.e. just return the value at the end Can be efficiently implemented Don t need stacks Can convert many functions to be tail recursive Factorial Function Examples (define factorial (lambda(n) (cond ((= n 1) 1) (else (* n (factorial (- n 1))))))) 11

12 Examples Factorial Function: Tail Recursive (define factorial2 (lambda(n m) (cond ((= n 1) m) (else (factorial2 (- n 1) (* m n)))))) (define factorial (lambda(n) (factorial2 n 1))) Examples Getridof Function (get rid of an item from a list) (define getridof (lambda(list item) (cond ((null? list) '()) ((eq? item (car list)) (getridof (cdr list) item)) (else (cons (car list) (getridof (cdr list) item)))))) 12

13 Examples getridof Function (Tail recursive) (define gro (lambda(list item list2) (cond ((null? list) list2) ((eq? item (car list)) (gro (cdr list) item list2)) (else (gro (cdr list) item (cons (car list) list2)))))) (gro '(x y x z x w) 'x '()) (w z y) In reverse order! Could you put in original order? Functions Functions are first class citizens in Scheme Variables may be bound to functions Can be passed as parameters Can be returned as values of functions 13

14 Functions as First Class Citizens A function may be bound to a variable, we are already doing this: (define add1 (lambda(x) (+ 1 x))) (add1 4) 5 Functions as First Class Citizens Functions can be passed as parameters (define (foo x y) (x y) ) (foo (lambda(x) (+ 1 x)) 4) 5 14

15 Functions as First Class Citizens Functions can be returned as values of functions (define (foo x) (lambda(y) (+ x y))) (foo 4) #<closure> ((foo 4) 5) 9 Examples (map) (map cdr ((1 2) (3 4)) ((2) (4)) (map car '((a b) (c d) (e f) (g h))) (a c e g) Takes two arguments Function and a list Applies function to the list 15

16 (let Examples (map) ((proc (lambda(ls) (cons 'a ls)))) (map proc '((b c) (d e) (f g h)))) ((a b c) (a d e) (a f g h)) Apply (apply + (4 11)) 15 (apply max (3 4 5)) 5 (apply <function> <arguments-in-a-list>) Useful when the arguments are built separately from application 16

17 Eval Eval will evaluate the parameter as a valid Scheme expression (eval (car (a b c)) a (eval (define (foo a b) (+ a b))) foo (foo 3 4) 7 Allows for interesting opportunities for code to modify itself and execute self-generated code Binding of Variables Global binding define Local binding lambda, let, letrec How do we change the value of a variable to which it is bound? We have been using define multiple times, although in some implementations of Scheme this is invalid 17

18 set! (set! var val) Evaluate val and bind it to var! Indicates a side effect Scheme does not specify what this returns Implementation dependent DrScheme seems to return nothing Examples (define f (lambda(x) (+ x 10))) (f 5) >15 (set! f (lambda(x) (* x 10))) (f 5) >50 18

19 Examples (let ((f (lambda(x) (+ x 100)))) (display (f 5)) (newline) (set! f (lambda(x) (* x 100))) (f 5)) (f 5) Scheme uses lexical scoping. Error, reference to undefined identifier: f set-car! & set-cdr! (define x '(4 5 6)) (set-car! x 7) x > (7 5 6) (set-cdr! x '( 7 8 9)) x >( ) 19

20 More Examples (define (my-reverse ls) (cond ((null? ls) '()) (else (append (my-reverse (cdr ls)) (list (car ls)))))) (my-reverse '(a b c d)) Recursive Functions (define (super-reverse ls) (cond ((null? ls) '()) ((atom? ls) ls) (else (append (super-reverse (cdr ls)) (list (super-reverse (car ls))))))) (super-reverse '((a b) ((c d) e) f)) 20

21 Recursive Functions (define (pairup x y) (cond ((null? x) '()) ((null? y) '()) (else (cons (list (car x) (car y)) (pairup (cdr x) (cdr y)))))) (pairup '(a b c) '(1 2 3)) Recursive Functions (define (listify ls) (cond ((null? ls) '()) (else (cons (list (car ls)) (listify (cdr ls)))))) (listify '( )) 21

22 Summary Pure functional programming No assignments (side effects) Refreshingly simple Surprisingly powerful Recursion - Functions as first class objects Implicit storage management Garbage Collection 22

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