# JAVA OPERATORS GENERAL

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1 JAVA OPERATORS GENERAL Java provides a rich set of operators to manipulate variables. We can divide all the Java operators into the following groups: Arithmetic Operators Relational Operators Bitwise Operators Logical Operators Assignment Operators Misc Operators THE ARITHMETIC OPERATORS Arithmetic operators are used in mathematical expressions in the same way that they are used in algebra. The following table lists the arithmetic operators. Assume integer variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then: Operator Description + Addition - Adds values on either side of the operator A + B will give 30 - Subtraction - Subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand A - B will give -10 * Multiplication - Multiplies values on either side of the operator A * B will give 200 / Division - Divides left hand operand by right hand operand B / A will give 2 % Modulus - Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder B % A will give 0 ++ Increment - Increases the value of operand by 1 B++ gives Decrement - Decreases the value of operand by 1 B-- gives 19

2 The following simple example program demonstrates the arithmetic operators. public static void main(string args[]) { int a = 10; int b = 20; int c = 25; int d = 25; System.out.println("a + b = " + (a + b) ); System.out.println("a - b = " + (a - b) ); System.out.println("a * b = " + (a * b) ); System.out.println("b / a = " + (b / a) ); System.out.println("b % a = " + (b % a) ); System.out.println("c % a = " + (c % a) ); System.out.println("a++ = " + (a++) ); System.out.println("b-- = " + (a--) ); // Check the difference in d++ and ++d System.out.println("d++ = " + (d++) ); System.out.println("++d = " + (++d) ); a + b = 30 a - b = -10 a * b = 200 b / a = 2 b % a = 0 c % a = 5 a++ = 10 b- - = 11 d++ = 25 ++d = 27

3 THE RELATIONAL OPERATORS There are following relational operators supported by Java language. Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then: Operator Description == Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true. (A == B) is not true.!= Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal (A!= B) is true. then condition becomes true. > < >= <= Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A > B) is not true. (A < B) is true. (A >= B) is not true. (A <= B) is true. The following simple example program demonstrates the relational operators. public static void main(string args[]) { int a = 10; int b = 20; System.out.println("a == b = " + (a == b) ); System.out.println("a!= b = " + (a!= b) ); System.out.println("a > b = " + (a > b) ); System.out.println("a < b = " + (a < b) ); System.out.println("b >= a = " + (b >= a) ); System.out.println("b <= a = " + (b <= a) ); a == b = false a!= b = true a > b = false a < b = true b >= a = true b <= a = false

4 THE BITWISE OPERATORS: Java defines several bitwise operators, which can be applied to the integer types, long, int, short, char, and byte. Bitwise operator works on bits and performs bit by bit operation. Assume if a = 60; and b = 13; now in binary format they will be a = and b = a&b = a b = a^b = ~a = The following table lists the bitwise operators. Assume integer variable A holds 60 and variable B holds 13 then: Operator Description & Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. (A & B) will give 12 which is Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. (A B) will give 61 which is ^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. (A ^ B) will give 49 which is ~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. (~A ) will give -61 which is in 2's complement form due to a signed binary number. << >> Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A << 2 will give 240 which is A >> 2 will give 15 which is 1111 >>> Shift right zero fill operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand and shifted values are filled up with zeros. A >>>2 will give 15 which is The following simple example program demonstrates the bitwise operators.

5 public static void main(string args[]) { int a = 60; /* 60 = */ int b = 13; /* 13 = */ int c = 0; c = a & b; /* 12 = */ System.out.println("a & b = " + c ); c = a b; /* 61 = */ System.out.println("a b = " + c ); c = a ^ b; /* 49 = */ System.out.println("a ^ b = " + c ); c = ~a; /*-61 = */ System.out.println("~a = " + c ); c = a << 2; /* 240 = */ System.out.println("a << 2 = " + c ); c = a >> 2; /* 215 = 1111 */ System.out.println("a >> 2 = " + c ); c = a >>> 2; /* 215 = */ System.out.println("a >>> 2 = " + c ); a & b = 12 a b = 61 a ^ b = 49 ~a = -61 a << 2 = 240 a >> 15 a >>> 15

6 THE LOGICAL OPERATORS The following table lists the logical operators. Assume Boolean variables A holds true and variable B holds false, then: Operator Description && Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes true. (A && B) is false. Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes true. (A B) is true.! Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then Logical NOT operator will make false.!(a && B) is true. The following simple example program demonstrates the logical operators. public static void main(string args[]) { boolean a = true; boolean b = false; System.out.println("a && b = " + (a&&b)); System.out.println("a b = " + (a b) ); System.out.println("!(a && b) = " +!(a && b)); a && b = false a b = true!(a && b) = true

7 THE ASSIGNMENT OPERATORS There are following assignment operators supported by Java language: Operator Description = += -= *= /= %= Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand Add AND assignment operator, It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand C = A + B will assign value of A + B into C C += A is equivalent to C = C + A C -= A is equivalent to C = C - A C *= A is equivalent to C = C * A C /= A is equivalent to C = C / A C %= A is equivalent to C = C % A <<= Left shift AND assignment operator >>= Right shift AND assignment operator C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2 C >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2 &= Bitwise AND assignment operator C &= 2 is same as C = C & 2 ^= bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator = bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator C ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2 C = 2 is same as C = C 2

8 The following simple example program demonstrates the assignment operators. public static void main(string args[]) { int a = 10; int b = 20; int c = 0; c = a + b; System.out.println( "c = a + b = " + c ); c += a ; System.out.println("c += a = " + c ); c -= a ; System.out.println("c -= a = " + c ); c *= a ; System.out.println("c *= a = " + c ); a = 10; c = 15; c /= a ; System.out.println("c /= a = " + c ); a = 10; c = 15; c %= a ; System.out.println("c %= a = " + c ); c <<= 2 ; System.out.println("c <<= 2 = " + c ); c >>= 2 ; System.out.println("c >>= 2 = " + c ); c >>= 2 ; System.out.println("c >>= a = " + c ); c &= a ; System.out.println("c &= 2 = " + c ); c ^= a ; System.out.println("c ^= a = " + c ); c = a ; System.out.println("c = a = " + c ); c = a + b = 30 c += a = 40 c -= a = 30 c *= a = 300 c /= a = 1 c %= a = 5 c <<= 2 = 20 c >>= 2 = 5 c >>= 2 = 1 c &= a = 0 c ^= a = 10 c = a = 10

9 MISCELANEOUS OPERATORS There are few other operators supported by Java Language: Conditional Operator (? : ) Conditional operator is also known as the ternary operator. This operator consists of three operands and is used to evaluate Boolean expressions. The goal of the operator is to decide which value should be assigned to the variable. The operator is written as: variable x = (expression)? value if true : value if false EXAMPLE public static void main(string args[]){ int a, b; a = 10; b = (a == 1)? 20: 30; System.out.println( "Value of b is : " + b ); b = (a == 10)? 20: 30; System.out.println( "Value of b is : " + b ); Value of b is : 30 Value of b is : 20

10 PRECEDENCE OF JAVA OPERATORS Operator precedence determines the grouping of terms in an expression. This affects how an expression is evaluated. Certain operators have higher precedence than others; for example, the multiplication operator has higher precedence than the addition operator. For example, x = * 2; here x is assigned 13, not 20 because operator * has higher precedence than +, so it first gets multiplied with 3*2 and then adds into 7. Here, operators with the highest precedence appear at the top of the table, those with the lowest appear at the bottom. Within an expression, higher precedence operators will be evaluated first. Category Operator Associativity Postfix () []. (dot operator) Left to right Unary ! ~ Right to left Multiplicative * / % Left to right Additive + - Left to right Shift >> >>> << Left to right Relational > >= < <= Left to right Equality ==!= Left to right

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